Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
UTSC (30,000)
BIOB10H3 (300)

Important Terms and Definitions

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Aarti Ashok

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
x Covalent bonds are strong bonds; are in nonpolar molecules
x An example of nonpolar molecules: Molecules that are made up of C and H are called
x Noncolvalent bonds are interactions between molecules or different parts of a large
biomolecule; weaker bonds
x An example of a polar molecule is water; partially positive H will interact with partially negative
O in a different water molecule (hydrogen bond)
x du}ÇZP]vv}v}ou}oµolv}Áv^]}o_
Common linkages between functional groups
x Ester: Alcohol +Carboxylic Acid
x Amide/Peptide: Carboxylic Acid +Amine
x Glucose is a 6-membered ring
x Oligosaccharides is a small chain of sugars; oligo = a few
x Glycogen is a polymer of glucose with alpha-1,6 and alpha-1,4 glycosidic linkages (alpha means
both atoms are located on the same(cis) side
x Starch, another polymer of glucose has only alpha-1,4 linkages
x Cellulose has beta-1,4 linkages
x Chitin, a polymer of N-acetylglucosamine also had beta-1,4 linkages
x Fats are normally saturated (i.e. no double bonds)
x Phospholipids have a hydrophilic polar head made up of a phosphatidyl choline and a
hydrophobic non-polar tail made up of 2 fatty acid chains; also contain a glycerol backbone
x There are two types of nucleotides: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid);
DNA contains the 5-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, while DNA contains ribose as the 5-carbon
x Proteins are made up of amino acids as their monomers; there are 20 different types in which
only the R groups are different; amino acids are made up of an alpha carbon, a carboxyl group,
an amino group and a side chain
x In protein folding: Ribonuclease is an enzyme that chews up RNA
x Interactions between neighbouring residues leads to the initial events in folding to the
secondary structure of the protein
x Chaperones are proteins that aid/help in the folding of newly made proteins by preventing
inappropriate interactions
x Two types of common folding patterns into secondary structure: alpha-helix and beta-pleated
x The quaternary structure of proteins is the linking of multiple proteins to form large complexes
Á]Zuµo]o_µµv]_vmultiprotein complexes; includes intermolecular interactions of R
groups such as disulfide bonds and mostly noncovalent interactions
x Homodimer =2 of the same molecules attached together; haemoglobin is a heterotetramer t
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version