Class Notes (922,989)
CA (543,034)
UTSC (32,990)
BIOB10H3 (278)
Aarti Ashok (126)
Lecture

Important Terms and Definitions

2 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB10H3
Professor
Aarti Ashok

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LECTURE#3
Cells contain 4 important macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids
x Carbohydrates: monosaccharides
x Nucleic acids: nucleotides
x Lipids: fatty acids and glycerol
x Proteins: amino acids
x dZ}vv}(oolv}Áv^}Pvoo_
x dZ^v}uuvÇu_}v]}(ZZU'}oP]U}}u/endomsomes and vacuoles
x Each organelle has unique functions; meaning that they create unique proteins
x Isotopes are atoms of a certain element, that always have the same number of protons (eg.
ZÇ}PvV}v[ZÀZuu}(vµ}v~PX}]µuU deuterium, tritium)
x Radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes
x When an atom disintegrates, it releases energy in the form of particles or electromagnetic
radiation also known as radioactivity
x Pancreatic acinar cells make digestive enzymes which are proteins
x ER is the site of new protein synthesis
x ooÁ^µo-ooo_Á]Z]}]}}UZvÁZ}µv^Z]vu]µu
containing NO radioisotopes => called a pulse-chase experiment
x Çu}(uuvZvo}~^uv_Z](}uZÇ}}ot
luminal space
x Smooth ER (SER) has NO ribosomes
x TEM =
x SEM =
x RER =
x SER =
x Transmembrane proteins are the proteins on the plasma membrane; they are inserted into the
membrane
x Peripheral membrane proteins are membrane-associated proteins; they are NOT inserted
x Proteins are made from mRNA by ribosomes: Translation tmRNA associates with ribosome
The orientation of transmembrane regions:
x Cytosolic end of translocon accommodates positive charges; it is negative
x Luminal end of translocon accommodates negative charges; it is positive
x Signal sequences that target proteins to the ER generally are at the N-terminus of proteins t
typically
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Description
LECTURE#3 Cells contain 4 important macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids x Carbohydrates: monosaccharides x Nucleic acids: nucleotides x Lipids: fatty acids and glycerol x Proteins: amino acids x dZ}vv}(oolv}Áv^}Pvoo_ x dZ^v}uuvÇu_}v]}(ZZU'}oP]UoÇ}}u/endomsomes and vacuoles x Each organelle has unique functions; meaning that they create unique proteins x Isotopes are atoms of a certain element, that always have the same number of protons (eg. ZÇ}PvV}v[ZÀZuvµu}(vµ}v~PX}]µuU deuterium, tritium) x Radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes x When an atom disintegrates, it releases energy in the form of particles or electromagnetic radiation also known as radioactivity x Pancreatic acinar cells make digestive enzymes which are proteins x ER is the site of new protein synthesis x ooÁ^µo-ooo_Á]Z]}]}}UZvÁZ}µv^Z]vu]µucontaining NO radioisotopes => called a pulse-chase experiment x Çu}(uuvZvo}~^oµuv_Z](}uZÇ}}otluminal space x Smooth ER (SER) has NO ribosomes x TEM = x SEM = x RER = x SER = x Transmembrane proteins are the proteins on the plasma membrane; they are inserted into the membrane x Peripheral membrane proteins are membrane-associated proteins; they are NOT inserted x Proteins are made from mRNA by ribosomes: Translation tmRNA associates with ribosome The orientation of transmembrane regions: x Cytosolic end of translocon accommodates positive charges; it is negative x Luminal end of translocon accommodates negative charges; it is positive x Signal sequences that target proteins to the ER generally are at the N-terminus of proteins t typically www.notesolution.com x A key example of protein sorting is the way done by a delivery system; the bar code is the signal sequence x Proteins in the SER correlate with the function of the organelle: many calcium binding proteins and channels function in calcium storage x Proteins in the ER have to be modified eg. glycosylation: transfer of oligosaccharides nto protein x Quality control in the ER: controlling misfolded proteins due to genetic mutations x The Calnexin cycle uses calnexin as a chaperone x Step 5 of the calnexin cycle: the re-glycosylated protein re-enters the calnexin cycle t gets another chance at folding x Step 7 of the Calnexin cycle: If the protein remains unfolded or improperly folded for several cycles, then the protein is deemed defective and destroyed/degraded x Typically the misfolded proteins are destroyed by the proteasome; this is known as the ERAD tER-associated degradation x RER: the site of secretory and membrane protein synthesis (biogenesis) x The correctly folded state of proteins is called the native form x ER proteins can initiate a pathway known as the unfolded protein response(UPR) if more incorrectly folded proteins accumulate than can be dealt with by the cell t a stress response www.notesolution.comLECTURE#3 Cells contain 4 important macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids N Carbohydrates: monosaccharides N Nucleic acids: nucleotides N Lipids: fatty acids and glycerol N Proteins: amino acids N @Z }LLZ} oolL}LZ^}2LooZ_ N @Z^L}KKLZZK_ }LZ]ZZ}ZZ7}o2]7oZ}Z}KZendomsomes and vacuoles N Each organelle has unique functions; meaning that they create unique proteins N Isotopes are atoms of a certain element, that always have the same number of protons (eg. Z}2L8}L[ZZZKLK}L}LZ~2:}]K7 deuterium, tritium) N Radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes N When an atom disintegrates, it releases energy in the form of particles or electromagnetic radiation also known as radioactivity N Pancreatic acinar cells make digestive enzymes which are proteins N ER is the site of new protein synthesis N ooZ^oZ-ooo_
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