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Important Terms and Definitions

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Aarti Ashok

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Cells contain 4 important macromolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids
x Carbohydrates: monosaccharides
x Nucleic acids: nucleotides
x Lipids: fatty acids and glycerol
x Proteins: amino acids
x dZ}vv}(oolv}Áv^}Pvoo_
x dZ^v}uuvÇu_}v]}(ZZU'}oP]U}}u/endomsomes and vacuoles
x Each organelle has unique functions; meaning that they create unique proteins
x Isotopes are atoms of a certain element, that always have the same number of protons (eg.
ZÇ}PvV}v[ZÀZuu}(vµ}v~PX}]µuU deuterium, tritium)
x Radioactive isotopes are called radioisotopes
x When an atom disintegrates, it releases energy in the form of particles or electromagnetic
radiation also known as radioactivity
x Pancreatic acinar cells make digestive enzymes which are proteins
x ER is the site of new protein synthesis
x ooÁ^µo-ooo_Á]Z]}]}}UZvÁZ}µv^Z]vu]µu
containing NO radioisotopes => called a pulse-chase experiment
x Çu}(uuvZvo}~^uv_Z](}uZÇ}}ot
luminal space
x Smooth ER (SER) has NO ribosomes
x TEM =
x SEM =
x RER =
x SER =
x Transmembrane proteins are the proteins on the plasma membrane; they are inserted into the
x Peripheral membrane proteins are membrane-associated proteins; they are NOT inserted
x Proteins are made from mRNA by ribosomes: Translation tmRNA associates with ribosome
The orientation of transmembrane regions:
x Cytosolic end of translocon accommodates positive charges; it is negative
x Luminal end of translocon accommodates negative charges; it is positive
x Signal sequences that target proteins to the ER generally are at the N-terminus of proteins t
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