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BIOB10 Lecture 1
-differentiation: making diff cells that have diff functions.
>over 200 diff cell types.
>proteins carry out the functions in the cell, provide structure and building the
-Robert Hooke coined the term “cell”, examining cork
-Leeuwenhoek took pond water and put it in his microscope and saw “animicules”,
the pond water organisms
-All cells have transcription and translation machinery
>genes to proteins
-all cells arise from other cells
-cells need to metabolize to stay healthy, have capacity to get energy and use it
>energy ultimately comes from the sun. via photosynthesis and respiration (use
the carbs built in photosynthesis to make ATP)
-need atp to carry out metabolisms, biochemical reactions,. Enzymes use atp
-cells engage in mechanical activities: intracellular transport (in the cell)
-whole cells can move (cell migration). Entire cells move
-in development you have rapid cell division, get a ball of cells. During cell
differentiation, cells on the outside get different cues then the inside.
-cell migration is common during development, stay put when you get older.
-cells have to be able to respond to stimuli via surface receptors (proteins)
-cells need ways to regulate any errors. (e.g dna repair enzymes, immune cells)
-beneficial genetic mutations/cellular changes will be kept and retained in future
-prokaryotes have been on earth for 3 billion years, 1 billioin years before
-eukaryotes have a membrane bound nucleus and are more complex the
-one prokaryote took up another prokaryote and kept it there as an organelle,
another membrane compartment
-internalization of cell: Phagocytosis
-eukaryotic cells have membrane bound nucleus with complex nuclear envelope and
-prokaryotes have no membrane bound organelles and undergo binary fission
instead of mitosis/meiosis
-Eukaryotes are unicellular or multicellular
>have unique proteins and elaborate membrane structures
-Differentiation: process by which relatively unspecialized cell becomes highly
>fertilized egg differentiates into 100’s of diff cell types
>depends on signals from outside (receptors get signal to tell cell to turn on)
>signals depend on position of cell in embryo. Have unique properties
-Cells have similar organelles but number/appearance/location are different.
-EXAMQUESTION ON SECOND LAST SLIDE OF FIRST LECTURE: size of cells and