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Lecture 3

BIOB11H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Karyotype, Transposable Element, Genetic Linkage


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB11H3
Professor
Dan Riggs
Lecture
3

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Lecture 3
Genome Evolution, Gene Mapping and
Polymorphisms
SPs:Figs 10-26, 27, 28, 30, SNP figure (intranet)
Vocabulary: transposition/transposon/retrotransposon/
reverse transcriptase/centimorgan/genetic map/
physical map/polymorphism/RFLP/SNP
Chromosome
structural variants
Fig 10-30
Karyotype: determined
by chromosome banding
inversion
Transposition
Transposon/transposable element
Mobile Genetic Elements: Transposons
Barbara McClintock: ‘controlling
elements of maize (corn)’
Nobel prize in 1983
McClintock’s results on the C gene
which controls maize kernel color
“C” gene
Purple kernels
Normal Situation Transposon insertion
disrupts gene function
Colorless kernels
What happens if transposon jumps back out?
If early in kernel development, get large purple sector
If later: get small purple sector
inversion-- under diff promoter-- may be expressed much more strongly--
cancerous
these genes keep jumping around
mobile genetic elements
C gene-- wildtype
but some kernels would be colorless- so there must be something
jumping into the gene-- interferes with the pigment
if you get it to jump early then you'll get more purple and if later
then less purple
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Small
‘spot’
Individual colorless kernel
‘Cob’
If transposition occurs late in development get
small spot of pigment
Large ‘spot’
If transposition occurs early: large colored sector
!Fig 10-27
Larger sectors due to transposon
jump early in development
Fig 10-24
5’
3’
3’
5’
5’
3’
3’
5’
5’
3’
3’
5’
at the end of every transposon is a inverted repeat
transpotase
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