BIOB11H3 Lecture Notes - Thymidine, Chromosome Segregation, Zygosity

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17 Mar 2012
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BIOB11: Molecular Aspects of Cellular and
Genetic Processes
Central Dogma of Molecular Genetics: DNA makes RNA
makes protein
Transcription (nucleus) and Translation (cytoplasm)
Lecture 1: X-somes, Heredity, Meiosis and Recombination
Brief History of Genetics
- Most organism are DIPLOID 2 copies/gene
- Allele: Other forms of same gene
- Genotype: Genetic composition of
organism
- Mendel and peas
Followed round vs/ wrinkled phenotype
PHENOTYPE: Observable traits/morphology
- HOMOZYGOUS: Both ALLELEs are identical (i.e. dominant), if
dominant=wildtype (RR)
- HETEROZYGOUS: Alleles differe (1 D, 1 R = Rr)
- NULLS: Homozygous recessive = rr, generally associated w/
“mutant”
The wrinkled peas are recessive allele known to be due to mutation in
gene encoding a starch branching enzyme
Mendel’s Laws
- Law of Segregation: 2 alleles segregate one
another into gametes. ½ of gametes carry 1 of
the alleles and the other ½ of gametes carry the
2ndd allele
- Law of Ind. Assortment: Different genes assort
independently during gamete formation (i.e.
gene for seed colour segregates independently
from gene for seed shape)
- DIPLOID: 2 copies of gene
- MEIOSIS: Part of gametogenesis where sperm
& egg made
- Sources of variation: Meiosis= reductional
division, haploid sperm and egg made
- Recombination occurs b/w maternal and paternal
x-somes
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