Karyotype: is determined by chromosome bonding; stains the chromosomes with dye: describes the number of chromosomes of an individual; can be used to diagnose gross chromosomal abnormalities such (ex. Is determined by chromosome bonding; stains the chromosomes with dye. On the right chromosome, there is a dark a band in the center of the chromosome. On the other copy of the left, the dark band has moved up an inversion of the segments ( cut and paste ) Insertions can also happen the pattern: in the figure, x, y and z has been inserted between genes b and c spread out. Movement of transposable elements (mobile genetics elements) Mcclintock"s results on the c gene which controls the maize kernel colour. Gene is transcribed and translated into an enzyme. Eznyme find he precursor that it acts on, binds to it and changes it into a product. The product is an anthocyanin pigment (purple) The purple pigment makes the kernels purple.