Translation: association of mrna with ribosomes, and subsequent decoding and formation of a polypeptide chain. Dna mrna proteins: information content: dna/rna = 4 different nucleotides, information content: proteins = 20 different amino acids. In rna there are four nucleotides and in proteins there are 20 amino acids. You would need at least three nucleotides in a codon because 4^1= 4 (which isn"t enough), 4^2= 16 (which also isn"t enough); however if you have 4^3= 64 it is enough. If it overlaps completely, it would mean that that each successive codon would include 2 nucleotides from the previous codon, and one new one. Partially overlapping would mean that it shares one from the previous codon. Effect of single base change mutations: if overlapping or partially overlapping, more than one amino acid may be altered. Evidence for a non-overlapping code: sickle cell anemia sred blood cells are crescent: 1.