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CA (543,132)
UTSC (33,027)
BIOB11H3 (244)
Dan Riggs (171)
Lecture

Chromosomes, Heredity

2 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB11H3
Professor
Dan Riggs

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Genome-
collective body of genetic information that is present in a
species
Genes-
unit of inheritance or distinct factors
Alleles
- two copies of a gene that controls the development of each
trait
Diploid
- two copies of each gene
Nulls
- homozygous recessive, normally associated with a mutant
Bivalent
- when pairs of homologous chromosomes interacted with
each other
Crossing Over
- when paternal chromosomes broke and exchanged
their pieces, thus resulting in various genetic traits
Discoveries on the nature of the gene:
1865. Discovery of units of inheritance from pea plants
1880. Discovery of the chromosomes
1903. Discovery of the homologous chromosomes
1909. Crossing over was discovered
1911. Genes could be mapped in order along the length of chromosomes
1944. DNA as genetic material
1953. DNA structure
Mendel's Laws
Law of Segregation: Although alleles remain together throughout the life of an
organism, they become segregated during gamete formation. The segregation of one pair
of alleles for one trait does not affect the segregation of other alleles
Law of Independent Assortment: different genes assort independently during gamete
formation
Figure14-39 Meiosis:
o
The production of offspring by sexual reproduction which involves
the union of two cells, each with a haploid set of chromosomes
o
Involves 2 divisions without another round of DNA replication
o
During the first division each chromosome still is made up of 2
chromatids
o
Purpose is to produce 4 genetically unique gametes which are all
haploid
Figure 14-44 Synaptonemal Complex:
o
This is a ladder like structure with transverse protein filaments
connecting the two lateral elements
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Description
Genome- collective body of genetic information that is present in a species Genes- unit of inheritance or distinct factors Alleles- two copies of a gene that controls the development of each trait Diploid- two copies of each gene Nulls- homozygous recessive, normally associated with a mutant Bivalent- when pairs of homologous chromosomes interacted with each other Crossing Over - when paternal chromosomes broke and exchanged their pieces, thus resulting in various genetic traits Discoveries on the nature of the gene: 1865. Discovery of units of inheritance from pea plants 1880. Discovery of the chromosomes 1903. Discovery of the homologous chromosomes 1909. Crossing over was discovered 1911. Genes could be mapped in order along the length of chromosomes 1944. DNA as genetic material 1953. DNA structu
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