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BIOB11H3 (235)
Dan Riggs (169)
Lecture

Intro to Transcription

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB11H3
Professor
Dan Riggs

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Vocabulary:
Core enzyme- a RNA polymerase made of 5 subunits which are
closely associated with each other
Sigma factor- accessory polypeptide
Haloenzyme- core enzyme bound with an accessory polypeptide
TATA box- region after the promoter region
Consensus sequence- the most conserved sequence except for
some variations from one gene to another
Amanitin- toxin that is found in mushrooms and can shut down
the RNA polymerases
Nucleolar region- area inside the nucleolus
Beadle and Tatum Experiment:
oDiscovered the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis
oNobel prize in 1958
oFocused their study on neurospora which was a type of bread
mould
Normally grown in a medium that contains a single carbon
source such as sugars
This meant that this mould was able to synthesize its own
metabolites, thus it is easily effected by enzymatic deficiencies
oTo determine this theory then spores of the mould was irradiated
and screened for mutations that could prevent the mould from producing
its essential metabolites
oObservations were that when this spore was but into media that did
not contain the enzymatic components it needed, the spore would not grow
oThe experiment was then tried in media with various vitamins to
determine which vitamin was missing from the spore after it had be
irradiated
Transcription in Eukaryote:
oThe DNA inside the nucleus will be transcribed into mRNA
omRNA will be transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm
oThis sequence will be translated into a polypeptide
oThe mRNA strand is synthesized from 5' to 3'
To start the strand of mRNA, the DNA molecule must be
unwound
The DNA molecule experiences stress, but if it goes
through supercoiling the stress is relieved
Nucleotide triphosphate hydrolysis takes place which
provides energy for the overall process to take place
Many polymerases act upon the DNA
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Description
Vocabulary: Core enzyme- a RNA polymerase made of 5 subunits which are closely associated with each other Sigma factor- accessory polypeptide Haloenzyme- core enzyme bound with an accessory polypeptide TATA box- region after the promoter region Consensus sequence- the most conserved sequence except for some variations from one gene to another Amanitin- toxin that is found in mushrooms and can shut down the RNA polymerases Nucleolar region- area inside the nucleolus Beadle and Tatum Experiment: o Discovered the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis o Nobel prize in 1958 o Focused their study on neurospora which was a type of bread mould Normally grown in a medium that contains a single carbon source such as sugars This meant that this mould was able to synthesize its own metabolites, thus it is easily effected by enzymatic deficiencies o To determine this theory then spores of the mould was irradiated and screened for mutations
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