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Lecture 4

BIOB32H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Weddell Seal, Elephant Seal, King Penguin


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB32H3
Professor
Steve Joordens
Lecture
4

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BIOB32 Lecture 4
Graph
- Adaptations to the delivery of oxygen
- The oxygen that is going to sustain you is what you carry with you
- Elephant seal… evolved huge oxygen storage capacity
- King penguin and the Turtle have huge oxygen storage in the muscle and it
can buffer the need for oxygen in the tissue
- They all have high hematocrit, high blood volume
- Can store blood in the spleen and can be released in the need of blood
- Elephant seals can hold their breathe and have huge lungs
- Weddell seal released all the air out of lungs before they jump into the water
so they don’t have the nitrogen
Adaptations of Mammalian Kidney
- See differences in mammals in the size of medulla or if there are long or short
loops on henle
Kangaroo Rat
- They have very little liquid water intake and this intake is reliant on
metabolic intake
- So this means have to minimize their water loss
- Loss through the urine is minimized by their ability to concentrate their
urine significantly
- Poop out rock hard poop
Arid Adapted Birds
- Birds don’t have sweat glands but you don’t need sweat glands to lose water
across skin… they lose a lot of water across skin
- Don’t have significant respiratory water loss
- Rates of CWL correlates with lipid amount
- Top graph…. More free fatty acids, more cutaneous water loss
- If you have greater proportions of ceramides and cerebrosid, less CWL… and
this is true for both Saudi Arabian and Ohio sparrows
Metabolic Water
- Glycogen is a hydrophilic molecule and some of the water is lost by being
associated with them
- When you break down some of the glycogen you are liberating some of that
water too
Fat stores as a hidden source of water storage
- Canada Geese don’t step down to drink water when they are migrating
- Fat is a preferred energy source because it is much more energy dense
compared to carbohydrates
- More ATP per gram of fat then per gram of carbohydrate
Hummingbirds
- They are drinking water all day long
- Copious dilute nectar intake
- They have a thin medulla and they don’t have the ability to concentrate urine
(contrast to something that doesn’t drink water often)
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