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BIOB32H3 Lecture Notes - Coenzyme A, Riboflavin, Niacin

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Kenneth Welch

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Chapter 2: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Cell Physiology
Metabolic flux = flow through the pathway
Metabolic pathways can be either:
o Synthetic = anabolic
o Degradative = catabolic
o Or a combinate of both = amphibolic
Energy metabolism revolves around the production of ATP and other energy rich
Metabolism is the sum of all these metabolic pathways within the cell, tissue, or
o Are biological catalysts that convert a substrate to a product
o Enzymes have three properties
They are active at very low concentrations within the cell
They increase the rate of reactions but they themselves are not altered in
the process
They do not change the nature of the products
o Most enzymes are composed of protein
Though some are made up of RNA
o Many enzymes posses nonprotein components called cofactors
Cofactor =
A cofactor that is covalently bonded to the enzyme is called a
prosthetic group
o Prosthetic group =
Some enzymes use cofactors that are metals (Cu, Fe, Mg, Se)
Organic cofactors = coenzymes =
Are derived from vitamins
o Coenzyme A is derived from pantothenic acid
o FAD from riboflavin
o NAD from niacin
o Enzymes accelerate reactions by reducing the reaction activation energy
Can apply laws of thermodynamics to chemical reactions that happen in
living cells
Enzymes do not determine whether or not a chemical reaction is
thermodynamically possible
Enzymes have the ability to accelerate thermodynamically feasible
reactions by factors of 108 to 1012
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