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BIOB32H3 (100)
Lecture

BIOB32H3 Lecture Notes - Brachioradialis, Hyoid Bone, Temporal Muscle


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOB32H3
Professor
Kenneth Welch

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The Muscular System
Muscle Organization and Function
Muscular system
Includes all skeletal muscle tissue that can be controlled voluntarily
Organization of skeletal muscle fibers
Parallel muscle
Convergent muscle
Pennate muscle
Unipennate
Bipennate
Multipennate
Circular muscle (sphincter)
Levers
Rigid structure that moves on a fixed point, the fulcrum
Changes direction and strength of applied force
Changes distance and speed of movement
Three classes
First class
Second class
Third class
Most common in the body
Muscle Terminology
Origins and Insertions
Muscles can be identified by origin, insertion and action
Origin = stationary end
Insertion = movable end
Actions
Muscles can be classified by action
Agonist (prime mover)
Antagonist
Synergist
Fixator
Names of skeletal muscles
Names give clues to muscle characteristics
Location
Fascicle organization
Relative position
Structure
Size
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Shape
Origin and insertion
Action
Axial and Appendicular Muscles
Axial musculature arises on axial skeleton
Positions head and spinal column and moves the rib cage
Appendicular musculature moves and stabilizes components of the appendicular
skeleton
The Axial Muscles
Axial muscles
Logical groupings based on location and/or function
Head and neck
Vertebral column
Oblique and rectus muscles
Pelvic floor
Muscles of the head and neck
Facial expression muscles
Orbicularis oris
Buccinator
Occipitofrontalis muscles
Platysma
Extrinsic eye muscles
(oculomotor or extra-ocular muscles)
Inferior and superior rectus muscles
Lateral and medial rectus muscles
Inferior and superior oblique muscles
Muscles of mastication
Masseter muscles
Temporalis muscles
Pterygoid muscles
Muscles of the tongue
(speech, swallowing and mastication)
Genioglossus
Hypoglossus
Palatoglossus
Styloglossus
Muscle of the pharynx
Pharyngeal constrictors
Laryngeal elevators
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