BIOB32H3 Lecture Notes - Apocrine, Neuroglia, Adipose Tissue

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The Tissue Level of Organization
Tissues and tissue types
Tissues are:
Collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited
number of functions
Histology = study of tissues
The four tissue types are:
Epithelial
Connective
Muscular
Nervous
Epithelial tissue
Includes glands and epithelium
Glands are secretory
Is avascular
Forms a protective barrier that regulates permeability
Cells may show polarity
Functions of epithelium
Physical protection
Control permeability
Provide sensation
Produce specialized secretions
Specializations of epithelium
Perform secretory functions
Perform transport functions
Maintain physical integrity
Ciliated epithelia move materials across their surface
Maintaining the integrity of epithelium
Cells attach via cell adhesion molecules (CAM)
Cells attach at specialized cell junctions
Tight junctions
Desmosomes
Gap junctions
Structure of typical epithelium
Basal lamina attaches to underlying surface
Lamina lucida
Lamina densa
Germinative cells replace short-lived epithelial cells
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Classification of epithelia
Number of cell layers
Simple
Stratified
Shape of apical surface cells
Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar
Glandular epithelia
Exocrine glands
Secrete through ducts onto the surface of the gland
Endocrine glands
Release hormones into surrounding fluid
Glandular secretions can be:
Merocrine (product released through exocytosis)
Apocrine (involves the loss of both product and cytoplasm)
Holocrine (destroys the cell)
Glands
Unicellular
Individual secretory cells
Multicellular
Organs containing glandular epithelium
Classified according to structure
Connective Tissues
Connective tissue functions:
Establishing a structural framework
Transporting fluids and dissolved materials
Protecting delicate organs
Supporting, surrounding and interconnecting tissues
Storing energy reserves
Defending the body from microorganisms
Connective tissues contain
Specialized cells
Matrix
Composed of extracellular protein fibers and a ground substance
Connective tissue proper
Contains varied cell populations
Contains various fiber types
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Document Summary

Tissues and tissue types: tissues are, collections of specialized cells and cell products organized to perform a limited number of functions, histology = study of tissues, the four tissue types are, epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous. Epithelial tissue: includes glands and epithelium, glands are secretory, is avascular, forms a protective barrier that regulates permeability, cells may show polarity. Functions of epithelium: physical protection, control permeability, provide sensation, produce specialized secretions. Specializations of epithelium: perform secretory functions, perform transport functions, maintain physical integrity, ciliated epithelia move materials across their surface. Maintaining the integrity of epithelium: cells attach via cell adhesion molecules (cam, cells attach at specialized cell junctions, tight junctions, desmosomes, gap junctions. Structure of typical epithelium: basal lamina attaches to underlying surface, lamina lucida, lamina densa, germinative cells replace short-lived epithelial cells. Classification of epithelia: number of cell layers, simple, stratified, shape of apical surface cells, squamous, cuboidal, columnar.

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