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BIOB33H3 Lecture Notes - Extracellular Fluid, Neuron, Homeostasis

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Connie Soros

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Chapter 1 Homeostasis
the study of body structure
- the study of body function
1. mechanistic approach
a. explain how events occur
b. e.g., you shiver because a drop in body T leads to signals for muscle contraction
2. teleological approach
a. explain how a function fills a need, "why"
b. e.g., you shiver because you need to keep warm
3. both approaches can be useful in understanding concepts
Levels of Organization
- Cells
1. the basic unit of living things
2. humans are multicellular
3. several basic functions of all cells
a. obtain nutrients and O2
b. make usable energy, Food + O2 CO2 + H2O + energy
c. eliminate wastes
d. synthesize needed molecules
e. respond to environmental changes
f. control exchange of materials with the environment
g. transport molecules
h. reproduce
4. in multicellular organisms, cells specialize
- Tissues
1. group of cells with similar structure and function
a. plus extracellular material
2. 4 major types
a. muscle
(1) specialized for contraction and force generation
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