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BIOB34H3 Lecture Notes - Tunica Vaginalis, Spermatic Cord, Corpus Spongiosum Penis

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Ted Petit

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Chapter 25 Reproductive System
- Gonads are the primary sex organs and produce gametes
1. in typical female ovaries produce eggs
2. in typical male testes produce sperm
3. gonads also secrete sex hormones
- Accessory reproductive organs
Biological sex
- Genetic (chromosomal)
- Internal and External Structures
- Intersex and other differences from typical
Typical Male
- Scrotum
1. sac of skin with superficial fascia
2. two compartments
3. dartos muscle (wrinkles skin) and cremaster muscle (elevates testes) control temperature for
sperm production
- Testes
1. outer serous membrane is tunica vaginalis
2. inner fibrous layer is tunica albuginea
a. divides each testis into a few hundred lobules
1) contain seminiferous tubules which produce sperm
2) sustentacular (Sertoli) cells support developing sperm
3) interstitial (Leydig) cells produce testosterone
- Spermatic cord contains nerves, blood vessels, ducts
- Duct system
1. epididymis
a. sperm mature and are stored
2. ductus (vas) deferens
a. runs through spermatic cord into pelvic cavity
b. transports sperm
3. urethra
a. transports sperm out of body
b. three regions - prostatic, membranous, penile
- Accessory glands
1. seminal vesicles - produce most of the semen (about 70%)
2. prostate - produces about 30% of semen
3. bulbourethral glands - produce mucus (pre-ejaculate)
4. semen contains alkaline fluid to neutralize the acidity of the female reproductive tract, and
fructose to provide sperm with an energy source
- Penis
1. delivers sperm to female tract
2. contains spongy CT and smooth muscle filled with vascular spaces
a. corpus spongiosum and corpora cavernosa - fill with blood during erection
Typical Female
- Ovaries
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