BIOB38H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Sweet Potato, Tuber, Glycoalkaloid

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17 Feb 2016
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02/09/2016
BIOB38H3 – Lecture 6: Starches
How to vegetatively propagate new plants
(You can plant each of the following:)
Stolon
Aboveground, modified stem
Adventitious roots at nodes
oE.g.: strawberry
Rhizome
Underground, modified stem
Can be food storage organ
Adventitious roots at nodes
oE.g.: ginger
Tubers
Storage organs on the end of rhizomes
Has typical vascular bundles
Each eye on the potato is actually a node(bud in axil where new plant will grow
out of)
Bulb
Most of it is made of leaves
Each one gives rise to new plant and also develops new
Usually monocots
Corms
Look like bulbs
Enlarged, flesh, underground stems
Usually monocots
Tuberous root
At the ends of fibrous roots
Swollen section for food storage
NOTE: potato and sweet potato are very different and have different root types
Tap root
Enlarged storage organ primary root
For biennial plant
White Potatoes: Solanum tuberosum
Family -Solanaceae
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Unsafe to eat the leaves, flowers,
fruit (See photo ->), you only eat
the starchy parts
Selected for shorter stolons, larger
tubers, reduced bitterness
Glycoalkaloids
These are in the leaves, flowers
and fruit
Exposure to sunlight increases
production of glycoalkaloids
Don’t eat green potatoes because they have glycoalkaloids!
Too much warmth and fungi infection also increases this
Causes gastrointestinal tract irritation and harmful to the fetus
Iris Potato Famine
Irish “Lumper” were larger potatoes
Diet consisting of mostly only potatoes
Potatoes grow well, and are high in carbs and calories so they were good to feed
many people
The one giant crop of potatoes were infected with a water mold - and because
they were all genetically identical, it wiped out m ost of the potatoes over a few
years
People died from starvation and diseases from being weak
The potato famine reduced the population from over 30%
Colorado Potato Beetle
Not as serious as the mold fungus
Structure
Herbaceous perennial
Large pinnate compound leaves
2 types of stems
1. Above ground
2. Below ground stolons
Internal Structure
Large pith in center
Parenchyma cells with amyloplasts and starch
Outer periderm (bark)
Nutritional value
Can be cooked and made into so many things
Low in fat
Used to make vodka
A lot of fiber in the skin
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