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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 notes.doc

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Biological Sciences
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Connie Soros

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1 Lecture 7 The Muscular System: Appendicular Musculature (based on Chapter 11) Appendicular Musculature Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand • The elbow joint is the articulation of the distal surface of the humerus with radius and ulna • hinge joint composed of two articulations enclosed in a single joint capsule and another separate joint not part of the hinge • muscles that move the elbow, flexion (biceps brachii, brachioradialis and brachialis), extension (anconeus, triceps brachii), pronation (pronator teres, pronator quadratus), supination (supinator) • Most of these muscles originate on the humerus and insert upon the forearm and wrist Exceptions include: Long head of triceps brachii: originates on the scapula and inserts on the olecranon Long head of biceps brachii: originates on the scapula and inserts of the radial tuberosity of the radius Biceps brachii: flexes at the elbow and shoulder Brachialis: flexes at the elbow Brachioradialis: flexes at the elbow Anconeus: extension at the elbow Triceps brachii: extension at elbow, extension and adduction at elbow (long head) Lateral head: extension at the elbow Long head: extension at the elbow and adduction at the shoulder Medial head: extension at the elbow Pronator quadratus: pronates the forearm Pronator teres: pronates the forearm Supinator: supinates the forearm - muscles of the forearm move the joints of the wrist, hand and fingers • lots of muscles front and back , 2 classes: • muscles that flex the wrist, superficial closer to skin surface • muscles that flex the fingers, deeper • muscles of wrist that produce flexion come from medial epicondyle (aka common flexor origin) • on radial side - Flexor carpi radialis: flex and abduct the wrist (landmark for locating the radial artery, where the pulse is usually taken) On ulnar (medial) side - Flexor carpi ulnaris: flex and adduct the wrist Palmaris longus: flexion at the wrist • wrist and finger (deeper) muscles that produce extension – extensors from lateral epicondyle (on lateral side) of humerus Extensor carpi radialis longus: extend and abduct at the wrist Extensor carpi radialis brevis: extend and abduct at the wrist Extensor carpi ulnaris: extension and adduction at the wrist Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers Extrinsic Muscles of the Hand Relatively large muscles that perform flexion and extension at the joints of the fingers © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 Provide strength and crude control of the hand and fingers These muscles are found mostly in the lower arm Flexor digitorum superficialis: flexion at the wrist and some digits Flexor digitorum profundus: flexion at the wrist and some digits Flexor pollicis longus: flexion of the thumb Abductor pollicis longus: abduction of thumb Extensor digitorum: extension of fingers and wrist Extensor pollicis brevis: extension of thumb, abducts the wrist Extensor indicis: extension and adduction of index finger Extensor digiti minimi: extension of little finger, extension of wrist Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Smaller muscles that provide fine control of hand Responsible for flexion and extension, and abduction and adduction of the fingers at the metacarpophalangeal joints
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