BIOC32H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Ligand-Gated Ion Channel, Signal Transduction, Axon Terminal
Neurons have between 10,000 >150,000 synapses on their dendrites and cell body: capable of storing huge amounts of info in the brain, synaptic cleft: between the presynaptic axon terminal and postsynaptic junction. Components of a synapse: synaptic vesicles contain the neurotransmitter that is released into the synaptic cleft. Because energy is required for movement of synaptic vesicles, the mitochondria generate. Atp to provide energy to allow the movement of synaptic vesicles from inside presynaptic neuron to synaptic membrane: synaptic cleft and synaptic junction contains receptors where neurotransmitters bind to. Information transfer at the synapse: action potential conducted down the axon, each neurotransmitter binds to a specific receptor, activation of a receptor could be responsible for the depolarization response that initiates the greater potential in a cell body/dendrite. Receptor activation initiates a downstream signalling cascade signal transduction: conformational change triggers downstream response. Ionotropic = ion-loving: downstream can cause responses like depolarization, activation of greater potential.