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BIOC33H3 Lecture Notes - Epididymis, Rectal Examination, Vas Deferens

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Stephen Reid

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Chapter 55: Male Reproductive Problems
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is prostate gland enlargement due to increased
epithelial cells and stromal tissue.
BPH results from endocrine changes associated with the aging process.
The compression of the urethra leads to clinical symptoms including decrease in caliber
and force of the urinary stream, difficulty in initiating voiding, intermittency and
Conservative and initial treatment is “watchful waiting” when there are no symptoms or
only mild ones. Drug therapy may also be used.
Invasive treatment of symptomatic BPH involves prostate resection or ablation.
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men, excluding skin cancer.
Risk factors include family history, age, and ethnicity.
Symptoms of prostate cancer are similar to those for BPH, including dysuria, hesitancy,
dribbling, frequency, and urgency.
Elevated levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) indicate prostatic pathology, although not
necessarily prostate cancer.
The conservative approach to management is “watchful waiting.”
Invasive therapies include radical prostatectomy and cryosurgery. Treatment may also include
drugs, hormones, chemotherapy, and radiation.
The nursing role is to encourage patients, in consultation with health care providers, to have
annual prostate screening (PSA and digital rectal examination) starting at age 50 or younger if
risk factors present.
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