Musculoskeletal System

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25 Mar 2013
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Chapter 62: Musculoskeletal System
STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS
The main functions of bone are support, protection of internal organs, voluntary movement,
blood cell production, and mineral storage.
Cylinder-shaped structural units (haversian systems) fit closely together in compact bone,
creating a dense bone structure.
Types of bone cells include osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts.
o Osteoblasts synthesize organic bone matrix (collagen) and are the basic bone-forming
cells.
o Osteocytes are the mature bone cells.
o Osteoclasts participate in bone remodeling by assisting in the breakdown of bone tissue.
o Bone remodeling is removal of old bone by osteoclasts (resorption) and the deposition
of new bone by osteoblasts (ossification).
Each long bone consists of the epiphysis, diaphysis, and metaphysis.
o Epiphysis, the widened area found at end of a long bone, is composed of cancellous
bone. Epiphysis is the location of muscle attachment.
o Diaphysis is the main shaft of the bone. It provides structural support and is composed
of compact bone. Marrow is in the center.
o Metaphysis is the flared area of cancellous bone between the epiphysis and the
diaphysis.
A joint (articulation) is where ends of two bones are in proximity and move in relation to each
other. Joints are classified according to degree of movement they allow.
Cartilage is a rigid connective tissue in synovial joints that serves as support for soft tissue and
provides articular surface for joint movement. Types of cartilage tissue include hyaline, elastic,
and fibrous.
Types of muscle tissue are cardiac (striated, involuntary), smooth (nonstriated, involuntary), and
skeletal (striated, voluntary) muscle.
A nerve fiber and the skeletal muscle fibers it stimulates are called a motor endplate. The
junction between axon of nerve cell and adjacent muscle cell is called the myoneural or
neuromuscular junction.
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Document Summary

The main functions of bone are support, protection of internal organs, voluntary movement, blood cell production, and mineral storage. Cylinder-shaped structural units (haversian systems) fit closely together in compact bone, creating a dense bone structure. Each long bone consists of the epiphysis, diaphysis, and metaphysis: epiphysis, the widened area found at end of a long bone, is composed of cancellous bone. Epiphysis is the location of muscle attachment: diaphysis is the main shaft of the bone. It provides structural support and is composed of compact bone. Marrow is in the center: metaphysis is the flared area of cancellous bone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis. A joint (articulation) is where ends of two bones are in proximity and move in relation to each other. Joints are classified according to degree of movement they allow. Cartilage is a rigid connective tissue in synovial joints that serves as support for soft tissue and provides articular surface for joint movement.

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