BIOC34H3 Lecture Notes - Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitor, Electroencephalography, Bronchitis

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9 Mar 2013
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BGYC33/CC4 Respiratory System Study Guide, Lectures 9-15 (2013)
Lecture 9: Pulmonary Mechanics
Topics
The Respiratory Tract
Conducting Zone
Respiratory Zone
Blood Flow to the Lungs
Thoracic Cavity and Respiratory Muscles
Diaphragm; Intercostal Muscles; Abdominal Muscles; Chest Wall; Phrenic Nerve
Inspiration
Expiration
The Pleura
Parietal Pleura; Visceral Pleura; Pleural Space
Pulmonary Pressures
Atmospheric Pressure (Patm); Alveolar Pressure (Palv); Intrapleural Pressure (Pip)
Important Pressure Differences
Patm - Palv = Driving force for air flow in and out of the lungs
Palv - Pip = Transpulmonary Pressure (drives lung expansion)
Damage to the Pleura / Pleural Space
Pneumothorax
Tension Pneumothorax
Haemothorax
Pleural Effusion
Asbestosis
Air Flow In and Out of the Lungs
Lung Compliance
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Sample Questions
1) Transpulmonary pressure is:
a) Patm - Pip and the driving force for airflow in and out of the lungs.
b) Patm - Pip and the driving force for lung expansion.
*c) Palv -Pip and the driving force for lung expansion.
d) Palv -Pip and the driving force for airflow in and out of the lungs.
e) Palv -Pip and increased by a pneumothorax.
2) In the diagram below, Palv relative to Patm (the upper trace) decreases in the part of the curve
labeled “A” because the “X”; while lung pressure decreases in area labeled “E” because “Y”.
a) X = lung volume decreases; Y = the number of molecules of air in the lungs decreases.
b) X = diaphragm contracts; Y = the number of molecules of air in the lungs decreases.
c) X = lung volume decreases; Y = the number of molecules of air in the lungs increases.
*d) X = lungs expand; Y = the number of molecules of air in the lungs decreases.
e) X = lung volume increases; Y = the diaphragm relaxes.
3) During inspiration, transpulmonary pressure because the decrease
in is greater than the decrease in .
*a) Increases; intrapleural pressure; alveolar pressure.
b) Decreases; intrapleural pressure; alveolar pressure.
c) Increases; alveolar pressure; intrapleural pressure.
d) Decreases; alveolar pressure; intrapleural pressure.
e) Increases; atmospheric pressure; intrapleural pressure.
AB
CD E
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Lecture 10: Pulmonary Mechanics and Spirometry
Topics
Air Flow In and Out of the Lungs
Ideal Gas Law
Air Flow = (Patm - Palv) / R
Palv Depends on Lung Volume and the Number of Moles of Gas in the Lungs
Inspiration: Changes in Pressure, Volume and the # Moles of Gas
Expiration: Changes in Pressure, Volume and the # Moles of Gas
Pressure Volume Changes during Inspiration
Lung Compliance
Surface Tension of a Liquid
LaPlace’s Law
Pressures in Large and Small Alveoli
Pulmonary Surfactant
Airway Resistance
Passive Forces
Bronchiole Smooth Muscle
Mucus Secretion
Spirometry
Lung Volumes
Tidal Volume (VT)
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
Residual Volume
Lung Capacities
Inspiratory Capacity
Vital Capacity
Functional Residual Capacity
Total Lung Capacity
Sample Questions
1) The following values were obtained using the inert gas technique. Use these volume to calculate
the volume of the lung at the time the test began. Do not worry about units.
Concentration of He in the spirometer before the test begins: 20
Concentration of He in the spirometer at the end of the test: 10
Volume of the spirometer: 100
a) 50
*b) 100
c) 200
d) 250
e) 1000
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Document Summary

Bgyc33/cc4 respiratory system study guide, lectures 9-15 (2013) Diaphragm; intercostal muscles; abdominal muscles; chest wall; phrenic nerve. Atmospheric pressure (patm); alveolar pressure (palv); intrapleural pressure (pip) Patm - palv = driving force for air flow in and out of the lungs. Palv - pip = transpulmonary pressure (drives lung expansion) Sample questions: transpulmonary pressure is, patm - pip and the driving force for airflow in and out of the lungs, patm - pip and the driving force for lung expansion. *d) x = lungs expand; y = the number of molecules of air in the lungs decreases: x = lung volume increases; y = the diaphragm relaxes. B: during inspiration, transpulmonary pressure because the decrease in is greater than the decrease in . *a) increases; intrapleural pressure; alveolar pressure: decreases; intrapleural pressure; alveolar pressure, increases; alveolar pressure; intrapleural pressure, decreases; alveolar pressure; intrapleural pressure, increases; atmospheric pressure; intrapleural pressure. Air flow in and out of the lungs.

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