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BIOC34H3 Lecture Notes - Descending Limb Of Loop Of Henle, Calcification, Epithelium

Biological Sciences
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BGYC33/CC4 Study Guide, Lectures 16-18 (2011)
Lecture 16: Kidney Structure and Exchange Processes within Nephrons
Fluid Movement across Capillaries
Hydrostatic Pressure Gradients
Oncotic Pressure Gradients
Net Filtration Pressure (Filtration and Reabsorption)
Kidney Anatomy
Overall Structure
The Nephron
Bowman’s Capsule; Proximal/ Distal Tubules; Loop of Henle; Collecting Tube/Duct
The Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
The Macula Densa; Juxtaglomerular Cells
Blood Supply to the Kidney
Peritubular Capillaries; The Vasa Recta
Exchange Processes within Nephrons
Glomerular Filtration
Glomerular Filtration Barrier
Glomerular Filtration Pressure
Glomerular Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure
Glomerular Capillary Oncotic Pressure
Bowman’s Capsule Hydrostatic Pressure
Bowman’s Capsule Oncotic Pressure
Net Filtration Pressure
Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR)
Quantification of GFR
Filtration Fraction
Filtered Load

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Sample Questions
1) Based on the following, what is the net glomerular filtration pressure?
PGlom = 70 mmHg
PBow = 30 mmHg
πGlom = 10 mmHg
πBow = 20mmHg
GFR = 120 ml/min
Filtered load = 125 mg/min
Filtration Fraction = 0.25
V = 100 ml/min
a) 70 mmHg
b) 50 mmHg
c) 40 mmHg
d) 16 mmHg
e) 30 mmHg
2) Based on the following information, calculate the 1) the filtration fraction (i.e., of plasma) and 2)
and the filtered load of glucose.
Plasma flow to the kidneys = 500 ml/min
The volume of plasma filtered at the kidneys = 200 ml/min
[glucose]plasma = 2 mg/ml
a) Filtration fraction = 0.4; Filtered load of glucose = 400 mg/min.
b) Filtration fraction = 0.4; Filtered load of glucose = 1000 mg/min.
c) Filtration fraction = 0.4; Filtered load of glucose = 600 mg/min.
d) Filtration fraction = 0.2; Filtered load of glucose = 0.4 mg/ml.
e) Filtration fraction = 2.5; Filtered load of glucose = 5.0 mg/ml.
3) Which of the following factors is involved in the regulation of glomerular filtration?
a) Myogenic regulation of vascular smooth muscle around the efferent glomerular arteriole.
b) Release of paracrine substances from the juxtaglomerular cells.
c) Mesangial cell diapedesis.
d) Contraction/relaxation of vascular smooth muscle around the afferent and efferent glomerular
e) Insertion of aquaporin into Bowman’s capsule.
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