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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Evolutionary analysis excellent notes

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Maydianne Andrade

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Evolution pattern and process
Macroevolution and microevolution
1. Microevolution – e.g. mosquito fish copulation behavior
- time scale- 2 populations diferent in traits. Gene frequencies
and trait distribution in population
2. Macroevolution – Pattern why species diverse - longer time
scales than microevolution
- involves study of large-scale phenotypic pattern and
phylogenic patterns – e.g. vertebrates diversity in taxa over
long periods
- Assumption: Microevolution leads to Macroevolution.
Method of analysis depends on time scale of interest.
Pattern – comparative method and fossil records.
Process - Scientific methods such as planned experiments, natural
observations and observational studies.
Scientific method
1. Observation
2. Hypothesis – educated guess possible explanation
3. Predictions – If, then statement
4. Test – Gather data
- Experiment compare treatment groups – Dependent (Y –
axis) and Independent (X – axis) variables.
- Observation
5. Draw conclusions – statistical test of data
- role of statistical test is to give confidence at point that you
can believe your conclusion to be true null hypotheis not
- P value - likely that observed difference is due to chance.
P<0.05 = significant difference between 2 variables –
concluding that you reject null hypothesis (in your study) and
X has effect on Y.
Method Analysis
Scientific method
1. Planned Experiment – research altered the (IV)
E.g. mimicry of fruit flies to avoid predators like jumping spiders
however researchers mnipulated the fruit flies’ wings to become
prone to predation and not be able to mimic the shiny eyes of
jumping spider flies eaten quickly if they are not able to
mimic the jumping spiders using their wings. See. Fig. 10.6 of the
2. Natural Experiment – naturally altered the (IV)
e.g. sopaberry bugs beak length and their host plant, tibetan
high-altitude Oxygen concentration saturation Darwin’s finches –
beaksize same continent but different beak morphologies among
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