BGYB51H3 Lecture 3 Notes Sep 17 2009

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BGYB51H3 Lecture 3 Notes
-PÀ}oµu}((}uooÇ}(]}µ}Á]v[Z}Ç
-through natural selection, species can change in characteristics through time
-looking at species of plants and animals, humans domesticated for their own use
-domestication through artificial selection causes species to evolve (e.g. dogs from wolves)
-social evolution is imposed on offspring and pets through selection of certain behavioural traits
-social competence through communication is selected in dogs
-many varieties can derive from a single ancestor
-agriculture required plants through domestication by artificial selection of a mustard plant to
yield certain vegetables
-artificial selection does require variation, heritability, and different variants producing
different numbers of offspring
-artificial selection involves an agent of selection which is the human
-environment is the agent of natural selection
-artificial selection involves conscious intent and a goal
-natural selection involves no conscious intent or goal
-different types of descendants from one common ancestor are possible
-geological evidence came from scientists who may have been unaware of evolution but
wanted to learn patterns of rock in strata
-characteristics of layers were observed and compared through fossils found
-order of deposition is inferred through relative dating or radiometric dating
-new species appear continuously through time
-organism in one time period may be found in other periods
-there is a time period of species appearance
-there is a progression of complexity in the fossil record
-ZP}(Z]]]oµÁ]v[Z}Çµ]ovPZ}(]u(}À}oµ]}v}
occur
-law of succession involves geographic patterns in which living organisms in one area are similar
to the fossils in that area
-environment changes over time cause extinctions on Earth
-an ancestral form involves certain traits in which some survive during a split in lineages while
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-fossilization is a rare event and not all fossils are found yet
-species that have descended with modifications have spread across Earth through dispersal
-biogeography is the study of the pattern of distributions of life on Earth
-species in oceanic islands dispersed from nearby continents through flying
-fewer species on islands than continents
-island species such as birds, bats, e.t.c are good dispersers
-human introduced animals to the islands flourish
-the biota of islands are descendants from ancestors in the nearest continent
-species evolve to adapt to local conditions and are endemic
-adaptation is defined as evolving to fill empty niches
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Document Summary

Through natural selection, species can change in characteristics through time. Looking at species of plants and animals, humans domesticated for their own use. Domestication through artificial selection causes species to evolve (e. g. dogs from wolves) Social evolution is imposed on offspring and pets through selection of certain behavioural traits. Social competence through communication is selected in dogs. Many varieties can derive from a single ancestor. Agriculture required plants through domestication by artificial selection of a mustard plant to yield certain vegetables. Artificial selection does require variation, heritability, and different variants producing different numbers of offspring. Artificial selection involves an agent of selection which is the human. Artificial selection involves conscious intent and a goal. Natural selection involves no conscious intent or goal. Different types of descendants from one common ancestor are possible. Geological evidence came from scientists who may have been unaware of evolution but wanted to learn patterns of rock in strata.

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