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Lecture 5

BGYB51H3 Lecture 5 Notes Sep 24

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Maydianne Andrade

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BGYB51H3 Lecture 5 Notes
-in experiment with snails, no difference in survivorship with no crabs
-with crabs, thicker shell snails have a higher survivorship
-crabs impose natural selection on shell thickness of snails
-an allele can cause higher blood saturation content than the average
-individuals with higher blood saturation have decreased mortality in Tibet
-strong natural selection on traits in humans that are heritable
-patterns are broad scales of different taxon and involve macroevolution
-processes involve microevolution and can lead to macroevolution changes
-microevolution involves changes in populations across a few generations due to changes in
gene frequencies
-macroevolution involves the study of large phenotypic change and phylogenetic patterns over
long periods using comparative method or fossil record
-scientific method involving experiments (natural or planned) and/or observational studies is
used to analyze microevolution
-microevolution involves a shorter time period involving changes in allele frequencies
-macroevolution involves a longer time period involving changes across taxon
-in experiments, there will be a distribution of responses that occur as a result of manipulation
-distribution of responses must be compared through treatment groups
-a strong test involves opposing predictions of a few alternative hypotheses
-statistical test measures if the observed difference is due to chance
-magnitude of difference and sample size affect how likely the result is due to chance
-increased sample sizes will more likely result in data that has not occurred due to chance
-the smaller the P-value the greater the effect of X on Y
-observation test involves careful measurement of one variable and how it relates to another
-planned experiment involves independent variable manipulated by researcher
-natural experiment involves independent variable manipulated naturally (e.g. crab
-in experimenting, one must control for possible confounding factors and sample sizes are
-experimentation involves comparing treatment groups to control groups to reject or fail to
reject the null hypothesis
-alternative hypotheses strengthen tests while null hypothesis is still considered
(refer to pg 366-369)
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