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BIOC51H3 (51)
Lecture 7

BGYB51H3 Lecture 7 Notes Oct 1

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC51H3
Professor
Maydianne Andrade

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BGYB51H3 Lecture 7 Notes
-without evolutionary knowledge, hypotheses about macroevolutionary changes v[
tested (refer to testes example)
-control of phylogeny is the evolutionary history of an organism
-phylogenies are hypotheses that can be tested
-a branch is a single taxonomic group through time
-nodes show a common ancestor for branches and are the sites of a split in lineage
-terminal node is most recent single taxon descendant
-sister taxa share more recent common ancestor
-traits are scored as discrete or distant data
-discrete data have only certain states possible
-distance data has consistent range of values
-phylogenetic trees should minimize homoplasies because they are misleading
-homoplasy is a trait similar because of convergent evolution or reversal (usually occurs when
two different species are grown up in similar environments)
-finding more traits eliminates homoplasies because certain organisms will become more
similar to each other than others as more traits are analyzed
-unidentified homoplasies will have a less effect on phylogenetic trees
-traits that define branches on a phylogenetic tree are synapomorphies
-synapomorphies are distinct similar traits found between two species and is considered a
more broad trait
-in evaluating hypotheses about the order of phylogenetic events, parsimony is used in
alternative explanations
-parsimony involves minimizing the total amount of complexity by using the most simple
explanation
-parsimony always assumes that the reasonable phylogenetic tree is the one with the least
evolutionary changes
-macro or microevolution questions allow researchers to test the logic of hypotheses and
identify where further study is needed
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Description
BGYB51H3 Lecture 7 Notes -without evolutionary knowledge, hypotheses about macroevolutionary changes L[ tested (refer to testes example) -control of phylogeny is the evolutionary history of an organism -phylogenies are hypotheses that can be tested -a branch is a single taxonomic group through time -nodes show a common ancestor for branches and are the sites of a split in lineage -terminal node is most recent single taxon descendant -sister taxa share more recent common ancestor -traits are scored as discrete or distant data -discrete data have only certain states possible -distance data has consistent range of values -phylogenetic trees should minimize homoplasies because they are misleading -homoplasy is a trait similar because of convergent evolution or reversal (usually occurs when two different species are grown up in similar environments) -finding more traits eliminate
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