BGYB51H3 Lecture 7 Notes Oct 1

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11 Aug 2010
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BGYB51H3 Lecture 7 Notes
-without evolutionary knowledge, hypotheses about macroevolutionary changes v[
tested (refer to testes example)
-control of phylogeny is the evolutionary history of an organism
-phylogenies are hypotheses that can be tested
-a branch is a single taxonomic group through time
-nodes show a common ancestor for branches and are the sites of a split in lineage
-terminal node is most recent single taxon descendant
-sister taxa share more recent common ancestor
-traits are scored as discrete or distant data
-discrete data have only certain states possible
-distance data has consistent range of values
-phylogenetic trees should minimize homoplasies because they are misleading
-homoplasy is a trait similar because of convergent evolution or reversal (usually occurs when
two different species are grown up in similar environments)
-finding more traits eliminates homoplasies because certain organisms will become more
similar to each other than others as more traits are analyzed
-unidentified homoplasies will have a less effect on phylogenetic trees
-traits that define branches on a phylogenetic tree are synapomorphies
-synapomorphies are distinct similar traits found between two species and is considered a
more broad trait
-in evaluating hypotheses about the order of phylogenetic events, parsimony is used in
alternative explanations
-parsimony involves minimizing the total amount of complexity by using the most simple
explanation
-parsimony always assumes that the reasonable phylogenetic tree is the one with the least
evolutionary changes
-macro or microevolution questions allow researchers to test the logic of hypotheses and
identify where further study is needed
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