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Lecture 8

BIOC51H3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Zygosity, Mutation Rate


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC51H3
Professor
Maydianne Andrade
Lecture
8

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BGYB51H3 Lecture 8-9 Notes
-natural selection reduces variation in populations because it removes unfavourable variance
-mutation is essential for evolution to proceed and increase variation
-two or more alleles for a gene causes a polymorphic gene
-changes in the base sequence of DNA are called mutations
-selection varies across a latitudinal gradient and indicates variation
-variation can be measured through polymorphism and mean heterozygosity
-point mutations generate new alleles through substituting bases
-the fate of a new allele depends on its fitness effect
-neutral alleles may be maintained, lost, or fixed by chance
-mutations in non-coding regions of DNA cause neutral fitness
-replacement substitutions may result in an amino acid with similar properties as the expected
amino acid, therefore not affecting phenotype
-accumulation of mutations tends to decrease fitness causing less survival to sexual maturity
-mutations decrease fitness because the probability of reducing functions is higher
-most mutations arise in a heterozygous form
-mutation rate is the % of A alleles that mutate into a alleles per generation
-observing genetic change and phenotypic effect are used in determining mutation rates
-multicellular generations such as humans have higher mutation rates
-mutation rate per cell division may be similar across all taxa (both unicellular and multicellular)
-gametes are important in causing mutation in offspring ~}u]oo]vv}v[µ
mutation in offspring)
-fathers are more likely than mothers to transmit point mutations
-the rate of mutation is underestimated due to only observing detectable phenotypic changes
-similar phenotypic effects can be due to a variety of different mutational changes
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