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Lecture 10

BGYB51H3 Lecture 10 Notes Oct 13

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Maydianne Andrade

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BGYB51H3 Lecture 10 Notes
-comparing mitochondrial DNA can be used to determine mutations/locus/generation
-mitochondrial DNA is more susceptible to errors and mutations than nuclear DNA
-mutation rates are variable because they depend on the accuracy of DNA polymerase
-DNA polymerase varies due to allelic variation and the fact that it is a synthesized protein
-mutation is a side effect of rapid cell division, which is a trade off of DNA replication
-high mutation rates are favoured in novel environments
-low mutation rates are favoured in similar and constant environments
-mutation strain is more successful in early infection due to novel environment
-when wild type strain adapts to novel environment, mutation advantage stops
-wild types eventually slow mutation to reach high level of fitness
-any factor that tries to reduce variation is a selective agent
-in most cases, strains of wild type and mutator bacteria will compete in a novel environment
for survival
-mutators are favoured in a new environment in competition with a wild type bacteria even
when initial inoculation gives a numerical advantage to wild types
-rapid DNA replication is beneficial to disease organisms
-gene duplication is one source for new genes during meiosis
- paralagous genes are duplicated genes may accumulate mutations that can acquire new
functional effects
-paralogous genes derive from a common ancestor
-orthologous genes are duplicated genes can result in the separation of lineages
-]}v}v[µ]Pv](]vZvP]n allele frequencies
-synapomorphies are homologous traits that define a particular lineage
-neutral mutations result in divergence of lineages and can be analyzed by a molecular clock
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