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Lecture 12

BGYB51H3 Lecture 12 Notes Oct 20

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Maydianne Andrade

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BGYB51H3 Lecture 12 Notes
-migration is the change in allele frequencies due to movement between populations
-migration adds alleles to a population
-mechanisms of migration are transported by wind, long distance dispersal by juveniles, or
dispersal due to human activity
-in migration, even if allele frequencies are the same, genotype frequencies become
-migration can maintain variation and is a very useful mechanism in small populations
-migration homogenizes and slows down divergence of species
-migration decreases adaptation to local conditions due to maladaptive traits moving between
-mutation and migration reintroduce deleterious alleles through mutation-selection balance
and migration-selection balance
-in genetic drift, the chances of getting a smaller representative sample of a population with the
same allele frequencies p and q is low (refer to figure 7.15)
-genetic drift has the strongest effect on small populations
-selection effects counteracts the effects of genetic drift
-founder effect is a change in allele frequencies when a new population is established by
individuals with different allele frequencies
-migration assumes allele frequencies between two populations is the same while in founder
effect, the allele frequencies are between the two populations is different
-bottleneck involves a change in allele frequencies due to a new population established after a
catastrophic event
-non-random mating changes genotype frequencies without changing allele frequencies
-non-random mating has an indirect effect on evolution
-self-fertilization decreases heterozygosity and increases homozygosity
-inbreeding causes increased homozygosity and increases in smaller populations
-deleterious alleles are expressed more in the homozygote form as a result of increased
(refer to red bladder campion example on pg230)
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