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BGYB51H3 Review Lecture Notes Dec 1

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Maydianne Andrade

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BGYB51H3 Review Lecture Notes
-natural experiments confirm or disprove macroevolutionary hypotheses of change in evolution
by analyzing history of taxa and major events that characterize divergence in species and
development of particular traits that distinguish them from each other
-mating system affected the evolution of testes size in primates
-independent contrasts involve comparing traits in sister taxa with different mating systems
-synapomorphies distinguish a group of taxa from other groups that are connected to a
common ancestor
-synapomorphies can be ancestral traits of a particular group
-selective pressures that cause convergent evolution are rare while homologous traits are more
likely to occur, especially at the DNA level
-one allele favoured fixes one allele across all populations while heterozygote inferiority fixes
one allele in one population
-heterozygote inferiority can lead to genetic variation across populations
-measured mean heterozygosity is usually lower than polymorphism because not everyone is
heterozygous despite having 2 or more alleles per locus
-pattern change is macroevolutionary change while process change is microevolutionary
-microevolutionary change is a trait that changes over time in one species
-macroevolutionary change is a change that occurs to cause species to diverge due to
accumulated traits
-microevolutionary change can lead to macroevolutionary change through independent
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