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Readings 2 notes

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Maydianne Andrade

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Readings 2
pgs 37-49
-according to the bible, species are unchanged since their creation and variation within each
type is limited
-the theory of special creation has two components
-the first component ]}(o]u}µZv}(o]([Z]}Ç
-the claims are that ~í]}v[ZvPZPZ]u (2) they were created
independently and (3) they were created recently
-the second component identifies the process that is responsible for producing the pattern
which is a creator
-Darwin set two objectives when he published his famous book: to marshal evidence on the
fact of evolution and to identify natural selection as the mechanism responsible
-Lamarck, before Darwin, advanced the notion that all species are derived by gradual evolution
from other species
-He claimed the process was driven by the inheritance of acquired characteristics and by an
inherent tendency for all organisms to progress from simple to complex forms
-although the idea of evolution was under discussion for decades, Darwin convinced the
scientific community that it was true
-Alfred Wallace independently discovered natural selection
-natural selection was not widely accepted as the mechanism of adaptive evolution until the
the development of population genetics over the next three decades
-Population genetics merged with natural selection to explain evolution
-the living evidence for descent with modification comes in two forms
-the first form is by monitoring natural populations, we can directly observe small changes,
referred to as microevolution
-the second form is the dramatic change in the bodies of animals, referred to as
(refer to soapberry bugs example on pg. 40)
-vestigal structures are useless versions of a body part that has an important function in other
closely allied species
-the evolutionary interpretation of vestigial structures is that certain animals are descended
with modification from ancestors that had these structures full formed and functional
-vestigal traits also occur in the molecular level
-the fact of extinction was good fossil evidence of evolution
-Cuvier found fossil records of larPv]uoÁZ]Z}µov[µ}Z]ZZ
organism were still alive today
-creationists contend that species had perished in a series of floods akin to the biblical event
-fossil and living organisms in the same geographic region are related to each other and are
distinctly different from organisms in other areas
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