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Readings 8 notes

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Maydianne Andrade

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Readings 8
-when an ideal population has no mutation, no migration and infinitely large size as well as
-migration is the movement of alleles between populations and depends on the mobility of
-migration from one population to another changes allele frequencies and can prevent fixation
-migration is a homogenizing evolutionary process in that it causes no heterozygosity
Pg 232-242
-the variation generated by mutation is random in the sense that when mutation substitutes
protein function
-natural selection is not random
-genetic drift only leads to changes in allele frequency caused by chance
(refer to example on pg233)
-in a small population, chance events produce outcomes that differ from theoretical
-sampling error is the random discrepancy between theoretical expectations and actual results
-sampling error in the production of zygotes from a gene pool is genetic drift
-selection is differential reproductive success that happens for a reason while genetic drift just
-as sample size increases, sampling error decreases
-genetic drift is a powerful evolutionary mechanism in small populations but declines in larger
-the founder effect is the allele frequencies in the new population being different from the
source population simply by chance
-the founding of a new population by a small group of individuals typically represents not only
the establishment of a new population but the evolution of differences between the new and
old population
(refer to pg240)
-because the fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next are caused by
random sampling error, every population follows a unique evolutionary path
-given sufficient time, genetic drift can produce substantial changes in allele frequencies even in
populations that are fairly large
-the wandering allele frequencies cause alleles to drift to fixation or loss and the frequency of
heterozygotes declines
-the frequency of heterozygotes in a population is sometimes called the popul]}v[
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