BIOC51H3 Lecture : Readings 8 notes

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11 Aug 2010
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Readings 8
Pg223-228
-when an ideal population has no mutation, no migration and infinitely large size as well as
ξ‚Œξ€‚vξ€š}uuξ€‚ξ‚š]vPUξ€ƒξ‚šZξ€žξ€ƒξ€‚ooξ€žoξ€žξ€ƒ(ξ‚Œξ€žξ‚‹Β΅ξ€žv]ξ€žξ‚ξ€ƒξ€š}v[ξ‚šξ€ƒξ€ZvPξ€žξ€ƒξ€‚vξ€šξ€ƒξ‚šZξ€žξ€ƒPξ€žv}ξ‚šΓ‡ξ‚‰ξ€žξ€ƒ(ξ‚Œξ€žξ‚‹Β΅ξ€žv]ξ€žξ‚ξ€ƒξ€ξ€‚vξ€ƒξ€ξ€žξ€ƒ
calculated
-migration is the movement of alleles between populations and depends on the mobility of
individuals
-migration from one population to another changes allele frequencies and can prevent fixation
-migration is a homogenizing evolutionary process in that it causes no heterozygosity
Pg 232-242
-the variation generated by mutation is random in the sense that when mutation substitutes
}vξ€žξ€ƒξ€‚u]v}]ξ€šξ€ƒ(}ξ‚Œξ€ƒξ€‚v}ξ‚šZξ€žξ‚Œξ€ƒξ‚‰ξ‚Œ}ξ‚šξ€ž]vU]ξ‚šξ€ƒξ€š}ξ€žξ‚v[ξ‚šξ€ƒξ‚Œξ€žPξ€‚ξ‚Œξ€šξ€ƒΓZξ€žξ‚šZξ€žξ‚Œξ€ƒ]ξ‚šξ€ƒξ€šξ€‚uPξ€žξ‚ξ€ƒ}ξ‚Œξ€ƒ]uξ‚‰ξ‚Œ}Γ€ξ€žξ‚ξ€ƒξ‚šZξ€žξ€ƒ
protein function
-natural selection is not random
-genetic drift only leads to changes in allele frequency caused by chance
(refer to example on pg233)
-in a small population, chance events produce outcomes that differ from theoretical
expectations
-sampling error is the random discrepancy between theoretical expectations and actual results
-sampling error in the production of zygotes from a gene pool is genetic drift
-Pξ€žvξ€žξ‚š]ξ€ξ€ƒξ€šξ‚Œ](ξ‚šξ€ƒξ€ξ€‚v[ξ‚šξ€ƒξ‚‰ξ‚Œ}ξ€šΒ΅ξ€ξ€žξ€ƒξ€‚ξ€šξ€‚ξ‚‰ξ‚šξ€‚ξ‚š]}v
-selection is differential reproductive success that happens for a reason while genetic drift just
happens
-as sample size increases, sampling error decreases
-genetic drift is a powerful evolutionary mechanism in small populations but declines in larger
populations
-the founder effect is the allele frequencies in the new population being different from the
source population simply by chance
-the founding of a new population by a small group of individuals typically represents not only
the establishment of a new population but the evolution of differences between the new and
old population
(refer to pg240)
-because the fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next are caused by
random sampling error, every population follows a unique evolutionary path
-given sufficient time, genetic drift can produce substantial changes in allele frequencies even in
populations that are fairly large
-the wandering allele frequencies cause alleles to drift to fixation or loss and the frequency of
heterozygotes declines
-the frequency of heterozygotes in a population is sometimes called the populξ€‚ξ‚š]}v[
heterozygosity
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