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Lecture

Readings 10 notes


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC51H3
Professor
Maydianne Andrade

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Readings 10
Pg319-324
-quantitative genetics is the branch of evolutionary biology that provides tools for analyzing
the evolution of multilocus traits
-qualitative traits involve discrete traits that individuals are assigned to just by looking at
them
-most traits in organisms show continuous variation in height, athletic ability and intelligence
-quantitative traits are characters with continuously distributed phenotypes
-quantitative traits are determined by the combined influence of the genotype of many
different loci and the environment
-the alleles necessary to produce the same parental phenotypes are not lost forever but still
present in heterozygotes
-quantitative traits are determined by the combined influence of the genotype at many
different loci and the environment
Pg333-338 (refer to equations on pg 334 and 335)
-quantitative genetics includes tools for measuring heritable variation, differences in
survival/reproductive success, and predicting the evolutionary response to selection
-continuously variable traits are typically normally distributed
-within a single individual, we cannot determine the influence of nature and nurture
-we can determine the influence of nature and nurture through comparison of individuals
-heritability is the fraction of the total variation in a trait that is due to variation in genes
-phenotypic variation is the total variation in a trait, VP
-genetic variation is the variation among individuals due to variation in their genes, VG
-environmental variation is the variation among individuals due to variation in their
environments, VE
-the fraction is known as broad-sense heritability
-most traits in most populations fall somewhere in the middle, with offspring showing a
moderate resemblance to their parents
-h2 is known as the narrow-sense heritability, which is the fraction of the variation among the
parents that is due to variation in their genes
-the two components of genetic variation are additive variation and dominance variation
-additive variation is the variation among individuals due to the additive effects of genes
-dominance variation is variation among individuals that is due to gene interactions such as
dominance
-genetic variation is the sum of additive and dominance genetic variation
-narrow sense heritability allows the prediction of response to selection
-when estimating the heritability of a trait in a population, it is important to keep in mind that
offspring can resemble their parents for reasons other than the genes the offspring inherit
-twin studies are done for estimating heritability
-monozygotic twins share their environment and all of their genes, whereas dizygotic twins
share their environment and half their genes
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