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Readings 11 notes

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Maydianne Andrade

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Readings 11
-eugenic sterilization is sought to reduce the fitness of particular genotypes to zero and thereby
to reduce the frequency of the allele responsibly for undersirable phenotypes
-feeblemindedness is defined as one who is capable of earning his/her living under favourable
circumstances but is incapable of competing on equal terms with his/her normal fellows or of
managing him/herself and their affairs with ordinary prudence
-normalmindedness was believed to be the dominant trait and feeblemindedness was believed
to be recessive
-rare recessive alleles decline in frequency slowly even under strong selection
-most copies of the allele for feeblemindedness are present in heterozygous carriers rather
than affected individuals
-although feeblemindedness is not among them, many genetic diseases are now known to be
inherited as simple Mendelian traits
-eugenic sterilization has few advocates because most genetic diseases are recessive an rare
-sterilization of affected individuals would have little impact on the frequency at which new
affected individuals are born
-any estimate of heritability is specific to a particular population living in a particular
-heritability tells us nothing about the causes of differences between populations that live in
different environments
-the fact that heritability is high in each population tells us nothing about the cause of
differences between the populations, because the populations were reared in different
-Murray and Herrnstein claimed that the difference in average IQ scores between African
Americans and European Americans is due to genetic differences between these groups
-Murray and Herrnstein consider the proposition that the difference between average IQ of the
African Americans and that of European Americans is solely due to differences in environment
-the first flaw is that they assume that there is a linear relationship between environment and
to rhetorical technique, not science
-if adoption studies were to be done, even though children would be reared in similar families,
their differences in appearance might therefore cause differential treatment by their parents
-hypothetical claims about the causes of differences between populations are no substitute for
experimental results
-heritability tells us nothing about the role of genes in determining traits that are shared by
all members of a population
-heritability on allows us to predict whether selection on the trait will cause a population to
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