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BIOC54H3 (13)
Lecture 9

Lecture 9

5 Pages
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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC54H3
Professor
Maydianne Andrade

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Lecture 9
Social behaviour of female lions
oTerritory defence: territory defence can be quite vicious, they defend feeding
territories, against other prides of lions. And they need large areas in order to
feed the offsprings in their pride
oThey had models of lions, and produced playbacks of roars. Lions are good at
estimating of how many roars there are at the same, so they can estimated the
number of individuals coming in as a threat
There is a variation in defence behaviour
There are leaders: they approach playback first and more rapidly
Laggards: lag enough for the leaders to get attacked, and the laggards
avoid being attacked
It was always the leader that was injured : leading is a risky behaviour
Where does lagging come from?
Altruism : groups of related individuals. But we dont see typical
relationship we see with altruism. Individuals are consistently
leaders or laggards, despite who they are with and how related
they are.
So is it reciprocal altruism? They mapped out leading and lagging
phenomenon with playbacks
oThey randomly looked for pair of individuals alone, and if
reciprocal altruism, then it should show prisoners
dilemma.
oTit tat initially you should lead, but then you should stop
if the companion isnt doing the same.
The leader and laggard both always get to the speaker. It is not the
case that anyone is defecting. So there is no evidence of
punishment. So maybe the leader doesnt recognise that they are
with a laggard, so this is different from individuals evolved
through evolutionary time.
www.notesolution.com
Glances are more common with leader, and laggard pairs. And the
response time the leader takes with a laggard is slower because
they are constantly looking at the laggard, and glancing at them.
So they are recognizing that they are with a coward. So why
doesnt this foolow the model of recip altri? Why dont the females
punish the cheater?
What happens if the leader defect? An opposing pride will displace
them. So that cost maybe too high for leaders to punish the
laggard. So punishing laggards is costly to the leading female and
the laggard. So why arent most females laggards? They should be
selection of all females to be laggards, because ethey are reducing
their risk and if someone is a leader, then they have someone to
defend the territory.y
Maybe the females are sometimes leaders and sometimes
laggards? That isnt the case. Ind have consistent behav
throughout their life.
oGraph shows diff tactics seen in females. They manipulated
the risk to the leader. The more individuals that are
challending the lion, there is a higher risk that the leader
will be injured. X-axis :# defending versus # intruder, and
as this increases there is a low risk of injury. Individuals
chge their lagging behiur according to the risk they assess.
And some individual do the opposite, some lag more when it
is riskier, and when there is no risk, their lag time is
minimal. When there is a serious risk, their lag time
increases. There seems to be almost a personality in the
lions. And there are also other that dont change as a
function of the risk. So there are 3 different patterns among
the lions. And no one knows why? They know that
individuals have the same tactic throughout their life, and
it isnt heritable, it is decided earlier in life.
Conditional and unconditional strategies : conditional : when the
behaviour depends on an external strategy ( risk) in unconditional,
it doesnt depend on the risk.
It may not be reciprocal altruism because females are in a trap. We
dont see reciprocal altruism with leading and lagging, but many
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Lecture 9 Social behaviour of female lions o Territory defence: territory defence can be quite vicious, they defend feeding territories, against other prides of lions. And they need large areas in order to feed the offsprings in their pride o They had models of lions, and produced playbacks of roars. Lions are good at estimating of how many roars there are at the same, so they can estimated the number of individuals coming in as a threat There is a variation in defence behaviour There are leaders: they approach playback first and more rapidly Laggards: lag enough for the leaders to get attacked, and the laggards avoid being attacked It was always the leader that was injured : leading is a risky behaviour Where does lagging come from? Altruism : groups of related individuals. But we dont see typical relationship we see with altruism. Individuals are consistently leaders or laggards, despite who they are with and how related they are. So is it reciprocal altruism? They mapped out leading and lagging phenomenon with playbacks o They randomly looked for pair of individuals alone, and if reciprocal altruism, then it should show prisoners dilemma. o Tit tat initially you should lead, but then you should stop if the companion isnt doing the same. The leader and laggard both always get to the speaker. It is not the case that anyone is defecting. So there is no evidence of punishment. So maybe the leader doesnt recognise that they are with a laggard, so this is different from individuals evolved through evolutionary time. www.notesolution.com
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