Lecture 2, 2010

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Published on 15 Dec 2011
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Lecture 2:
Tardy grade-Moss piglets- water bears
--Unusual for species to be spread out on different habitats
difficult to categorize taxonomically
Arthropoda (largest)
– insects
Arthropodas are related to Omnychophora (velvet worms)
only phytlum of animals that have representative species on land
ONLY teerestial animals (velvet worms)
endemic of terrestial species
There are phylums that have ONLY water species and not terrestial
Panarthropoda
1) artheropoda
2) omnychophora
3) tardygrades
closesly related but distinct enough to be separated into different phylums
70% of species are arthropodas
Tardy grade:
tardy grades are all over the place ( varied habitats)
most radiation tolerant
most pressure tolerant
most tolerant with temperaure changes
can travel in space
For ever 10m vertically down in water = to 1atm of pressure
4000m- 400x atm pressure
only organism that can survive this pressure in their dives
Mariyana strength
Cellular level: how do the enzymes function
Temperature changes..in the water its 3-4 degrees Celsius
Pressure is huge difference.
Well protected through DNA mutation protection
Cryotobiosis in tardigrades
Active state
Anhydrobiosis
Dessication
can ho without water for 10 yers
after ten years then can resassume if water is vailable
need a few days to reconfigure
can hold onto the water it has, and shift its metabolism to a slower rate
they are able to bring down metabolism to 0.01% and still have normal metabolism
(still able to have krebts cycle,, glycolysis etc)
brings its cellular water content to lower levels
water level declines to less than 99%
Osmotic pressure
Osmobiosis
bring up salt levels to higher levels (most organisms can’t tolerate
tardigrades can’t either therefore they create a high osmotic pressure
polyalchols
requirement for oxygen is minimal
Cryobiosis
Low temperature
cryobiosis causes tardigrades to survive to – 272 – 263 degress
close to 0
Anoxybiosis
(lack of oxygen)
Supercooling is used by tardigreades
brings down freezing point by adding solute
occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell inorder to allow krebts etc to continue
Tolerance of tardigrades
Active site Anhydrobiosis
High temp <50 151
Low temp -253 -273
Vaccum N.D 5x10^04 Pa
High pressure 1000atm 6000atm
Chemicals not tolerant alcholgs etc
Radiation 7000Gy 7000Gy
Alga- Protistant
Duonilla Saharna (alga)
>2molar]
requires need more than >2 molar
it cant survive in normal molar conditions
it can survive in extreme
Classic halophylum
{itch lake:
lake is ashphalt
10^6 – 10^7 organisms per gram
Yellowstone national park
water has a ph of 1
difficult to take samples due ti its high acidity
loaded for metals that life is normlally not exposed to
all quantum number four elements are in this lake
non eukaryotic organisms can survive
porkaryoties –archea can survive
Archa are unique must be separated from others
archa have the largest arrsenol to tolerate large salt concentrations
exprement pressures
piezophile
tolerates high and low pressure
thermophile- high tempile
psychophile—low temps
cellular diagram
Picrophylis torrilus
olove certain condisions
oacidic lover
ooptimum PH of 0.7
otolerate ph 0
o1 molar of HCL
o10^0 molar
Archea rely on ether bonds
1) formed when OH find OH
more resilian to extreme temp, pressure. Halophilic and acid
2)Isoproene
research in plants
good at making isoprense derritives
in secondary metabolism
archea bacteria use isoprene for membranes
by using both, membranes are resilient to extreme conditions
use protons to power secondary transport system

Document Summary

-unusual for species to be spread out on different habitats difficult to categorize taxonomically. Only phytlum of animals that have representative species on land. There are phylums that have only water species and not terrestial. Closesly related but distinct enough to be separated into different phylums tardygrades. Tardy grade: tardy grades are all over the place ( varied habitats) most radiation tolerant most pressure tolerant most tolerant with temperaure changes can travel in space. For ever 10m vertically down in water = to 1atm of pressure. 4000m- 400x atm pressure only organism that can survive this pressure in their dives. Temperature changesin the water its 3-4 degrees celsius. Can ho without water for 10 yers. After ten years then can resassume if water is vailable. Bring up salt levels to higher levels (most organisms can"t tolerate tardigrades can"t either therefore they create a high osmotic pressure polyalchols requirement for oxygen is minimal.