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Lecture 20

BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 20.docx

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOC63H3
Professor
Karen Williams

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BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 20: Design of Reserves II
Systematic reserve planning
Establish new reserves
Process driven by biodiversity pattern and NOT by remoteness or unproductive nature of area to
economy ( history of reserve creation)
In the South, where population pressure is higher the reserves are smaller
Realistic base conditions
→ Total biodiversity unknown we don’t know where the bulk of biodiversity is located
→ Limited resources
→ Competing land use some land is already spoken for and it is hard to change that
i. Compile data on biodiversity
ii. Identify conservation targets
iii. Review existing conservation areas
iv. Select additional reserves
v. Implement conservation actions
vi. Maintain required values of selected areas
Compile data on biodiversity
assement of all biodiversity is not feasible
are there way to use surrogate groups to assess where biodiversity is hidden?
species chosen to represent an environmental cause, such as an ecosystem in need of conservation
These species are chosen for their vulnerability, attractiveness or distinctiveness in order to
engender support and acknowledgment from the public at large.
Thus, the concept of a flagship species holds that by giving publicity to a few key species, the
support given to those species will successfully leverage conservation of entire ecosystems and all
species contained therein
Big flashy, large mammals that we know a lot about we would hope that where these megafauna
occur in high density that would overlap with the areas where the biodiversity is also high
Umbrella species are species selected for making conservation related decisions, typically because
protecting these species indirectly protects the many other species that make up the ecological
community of its habitat.
Bay checkerspot in grasslands
Piping plower in maritime wetlands
Spotted owles only occur in forests where there is no deforestation
Bengal tiger also likes undisrupted areas
Many butterfly species need species rich
Surrogates for overall biodiversity?
Flagship species: charismatic species
Umbrella species: A wide-ranging species whose requirements include those of many other
species
Biodiversity indicators: indicators of areas with high species richness
Habitat types: land systems or vegetation classes
Flagship/umbrella species approach
Columbia Plateau: 1241 sites and 211 vertebrate species
9 flagship/umbrella species
How well would all species be preserved by preserving all populations of a given charismatic
species?
Protect all sites where all 9 flagship/umbrella species occur
Species protected: 50%
Sites required: 40%
Protect all sites where 10 random species occur
Species protected: 40%
Sites required: 12%
Umbrella and flagship species are expensive!
Lower species protected with random species but lower amount of land required
If you had unlimited resources you could buy the necessary land for the species approach but it is
not realistic
Biodiversity indicator approach
Twin studies: UK (temperate region) and Uganda (tropical rainforest)
Hotspot for 1 taxon = hotspots for all taxa?
UK biodiversity indicators: birds, butterflies and dragonflies; liverworts and aquatic plants
How well does the biodiversity hot spot overlap with the other groups (all other taxa)
You can tell from the maps that the areas of high density do not overlap with one another
Biodiversity Indicator approach - Uganda
Uganda: 15 000 km squared of forest reserve 3000 km sq. slated to be strict reserve
How to choose the land?
woody plants
large moths, butterflies
birds
small mammals
correlations of diversity between different taxa

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Description
BIOC63Fall2013 Lecture 20: Design of Reserves II Systematic reserve planning  Establish new reserves  Process driven by biodiversity pattern and NOT by remoteness or unproductive nature of area to economy ( history of reserve creation)   In the South, where population pressure is higher the reserves are smaller Realistic base conditions  → Total biodiversity unknown  we don’t know where the bulk of biodiversity is located  → Limited resources  → Competing land use  some land is already spoken for and it is hard to change that  i. Compile data on biodiversity  ii. Identify conservation targets  iii. Review existing conservation areas  iv. Select additional reserves  v. Implement conservation actions  vi. Maintain required values of selected areas Compile data on biodiversity  assement of all biodiversity is not feasible  are there way to use surrogate groups to assess where biodiversity is hidden?  species chosen to represent an environmental cause, such as an ecosystem in need of conservation  These species are chosen for their vulnerability, attractiveness or distinctiveness in order to engender support and acknowledgment from the public at large.  Thus, the concept of a flagship species holds that by giving publicity to a few key species, the support given to those species will successfully leverage conservation of entire ecosystems and all species contained therein  Big flashy, large mammals that we know a lot about – we would hope that where these megafauna occur in high density that would overlap with the areas where the biodiversity is also high  Umbrella species are species selected for making conservation related decisions, typically because protecting these species indirectly protects the many other species that make up the ecological community of its habitat.  Bay checkerspot in grasslands  Piping plower in maritime wetlands  Spotted owles only occur in forests where there is no deforestation  Bengal tiger also likes undisrupted areas  Many butterfly species need species rich Surrogates for overall biodiversity?  Flagship species: charismatic species  Umbrella species: A wide-ranging species whose requirements include those of many other species  Biodiversity indicators: indicators of areas with high species richness  Habitat types: land systems or vegetation classes Flagship/umbrella species approach  Columbia Plateau: 1241 sites and 211 vertebrate species  9 flagship/umbrella species  How well would all species be preserved by preserving all populations of a given charismatic species?  Protect all sites where all 9 flagship/umbrella species occur  Species protected: 50%  Sites required: 40%  Protect all sites where 10 random species occur  Species protected: 40%  Sites required: 12%  Umbrella and flagship species are expensive!  Lower species protected with random species but lower amount of land required  If you had unlimited resources you could buy the necessary land for the species approach but it is not realistic Biodiversity indicator approach  Twin studies: UK (temperate region) and Uganda (tropical rainforest)  Hotspot for 1 taxon = hotspots for all taxa?  UK biodiversity indicators: birds, butterflies and dragonflies; liverworts and aquatic plants   How well does the biodiversity hot spot overlap with the other groups (all other taxa)  You can tell from the maps that the areas of high density do not overlap with one another Biodiversity Indicator approach - Uganda  Uganda: 15 000 km squared of forest reserve  3000 km sq. slated to be strict reserve  How to choose the land?  woody plants  large moths, butterflies  birds  small mammals  correlations of diversity between different taxa    NS = not significant, P< than 0.05 is significant  Woody plants not representative  Large moths and butterflies, and birds  Butterflies and birds 
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