BGYB30H3 Lecture 6 Notes Chemical Synapse 2-Sep 29

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BGYB30H3 Lecture 6 Notes
-neurotransmitters can be classified based on chemical composition
-amines, amino acids, and acetylcholine are types of neurotransmitters
-dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are types of amine neurotransmitters as well as
serotonin
-amino acid neurotransmitters are glutamate and GABA
-acetylcholine is derived from choline and acetyl-CoA
-in reuptake, tyrosine is converted into a neurotransmitter by a series of enzymes
-DOPA is the precursor for dopamine, norepinephrine, and adrenaline
-enzymes of the presynaptic terminal determine which neurotransmitters are made
-in reuptake, neurotransmitters are taken back up by active transport
-excess neurotransmitter is catabolyzed by enzymes in the pre-synaptic terminal
-neurotransmitter is broken down in the synaptic cleft after binding to the receptor
-glutamine t alpha ketoglutarate t glutamate or GABA
-trytophan t serotonin
-at low concentrations, there is a linear relationship between neurotransmitter concentration
and percent neurotransmitter bound to receptors
-at high concentrations, receptors become saturated with neurotransmitter
-maximum neurotransmitter bound to receptors is referred to as the maximum downstream
effect that the neurotransmitter can cause
-receptor subtypes are defined by the endogenous ligand that binds to it
-adrenergic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors with alpha and beta receptor subtypes
-dopaminergic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors with D1 and D2 receptor subtypes
-acetylcholine receptors are either ionotropic or G protein-coupled receptors with nicotinic
ionotropic receptor subtypes or muscarinic GPCR subtypes
-glutamate receptors are GPCR or ionotropic receptors with NMDA and AMPA ionotropic
receptor subtypes and metabotropic GPCR subtypes
-the type of neurotransmitter released defines the type of neuron
-neurotransmitter can be released into the bloodstream (e.g. adrenaline)
-some receptors are found in specific areas of the body only
-cholinergic receptors are found in the skeletal muscle, basal ganglia and the heart
-adrenergic receptors are found in the CNS, smooth muscles and cardiac systems
-GPCR activates amplifying enzymes, which activate secondary messengers, then protein
kinases that initiate a cell response
-activation of protein kinase causes phosphorylation which changes protein shape and causes
downstream cascade
-calcium is an example of a secondary messenger
-alpha 2 adrenergic receptors inhibit cAMP while beta adrenergic receptors increase cAMP
FUNCTION OF AMINE NEUROTRANSMITTERS
-dopamine is the main neurotransmitter involved in motor control, vomiting and motivation
-noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine are involved in mood control
-Wl]v}v[] involves the loss of dopamine or deficiency in its receptors
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Document Summary

Neurotransmitters can be classified based on chemical composition. Amines, amino acids, and acetylcholine are types of neurotransmitters. Dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are types of amine neurotransmitters as well as serotonin. In reuptake, tyrosine is converted into a neurotransmitter by a series of enzymes. Dopa is the precursor for dopamine, norepinephrine, and adrenaline. Enzymes of the presynaptic terminal determine which neurotransmitters are made. In reuptake, neurotransmitters are taken back up by active transport. Excess neurotransmitter is catabolyzed by enzymes in the pre-synaptic terminal. Neurotransmitter is broken down in the synaptic cleft after binding to the receptor. Glutamine j alpha ketoglutarate j glutamate or gaba. At low concentrations, there is a linear relationship between neurotransmitter concentration and percent neurotransmitter bound to receptors. At high concentrations, receptors become saturated with neurotransmitter. Maximum neurotransmitter bound to receptors is referred to as the maximum downstream effect that the neurotransmitter can cause. Receptor subtypes are defined by the endogenous ligand that binds to it.

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