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Lecture 6

BGYB30H3 Lecture 6 Notes Chemical Synapse 2-Sep 29

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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BGYB30H3 Lecture 6 Notes
-neurotransmitters can be classified based on chemical composition
-amines, amino acids, and acetylcholine are types of neurotransmitters
-dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine are types of amine neurotransmitters as well as
-amino acid neurotransmitters are glutamate and GABA
-acetylcholine is derived from choline and acetyl-CoA
-in reuptake, tyrosine is converted into a neurotransmitter by a series of enzymes
-DOPA is the precursor for dopamine, norepinephrine, and adrenaline
-enzymes of the presynaptic terminal determine which neurotransmitters are made
-in reuptake, neurotransmitters are taken back up by active transport
-excess neurotransmitter is catabolyzed by enzymes in the pre-synaptic terminal
-neurotransmitter is broken down in the synaptic cleft after binding to the receptor
-glutamine t alpha ketoglutarate t glutamate or GABA
-trytophan t serotonin
-at low concentrations, there is a linear relationship between neurotransmitter concentration
and percent neurotransmitter bound to receptors
-at high concentrations, receptors become saturated with neurotransmitter
-maximum neurotransmitter bound to receptors is referred to as the maximum downstream
effect that the neurotransmitter can cause
-receptor subtypes are defined by the endogenous ligand that binds to it
-adrenergic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors with alpha and beta receptor subtypes
-dopaminergic receptors are G protein-coupled receptors with D1 and D2 receptor subtypes
-acetylcholine receptors are either ionotropic or G protein-coupled receptors with nicotinic
ionotropic receptor subtypes or muscarinic GPCR subtypes
-glutamate receptors are GPCR or ionotropic receptors with NMDA and AMPA ionotropic
receptor subtypes and metabotropic GPCR subtypes
-the type of neurotransmitter released defines the type of neuron
-neurotransmitter can be released into the bloodstream (e.g. adrenaline)
-some receptors are found in specific areas of the body only
-cholinergic receptors are found in the skeletal muscle, basal ganglia and the heart
-adrenergic receptors are found in the CNS, smooth muscles and cardiac systems
-GPCR activates amplifying enzymes, which activate secondary messengers, then protein
kinases that initiate a cell response
-activation of protein kinase causes phosphorylation which changes protein shape and causes
downstream cascade
-calcium is an example of a secondary messenger
-alpha 2 adrenergic receptors inhibit cAMP while beta adrenergic receptors increase cAMP
-dopamine is the main neurotransmitter involved in motor control, vomiting and motivation
-noradrenaline, serotonin, and dopamine are involved in mood control
-Wl]v}v[] involves the loss of dopamine or deficiency in its receptors
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