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Lecture 8

BGYB30H3 Lecture 8 Notes CNS 1-Oct 6


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOD27H3
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic
Lecture
8

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BGYB30H3 Lecture 8 Notes
-the three parts of the peripheral nervous system are the autonomic nervous system, enteric
nervous system and the somatic motor division
-the autonomic nervous system controls cardiac, smooth muscle, adipose tissue, and endocrine
control
-the enteric nervous system controls the digestive system
-the somatic motor division controls skeletal muscles
-a nerve net is found in jellyfish to control and coordinate movement
-flatworms have the simplest nervous system in animals with nerve cell bodies restricted to the
head
-segmented worms have ganglia to allow spinal reflexes which are not controlled by the brain
-in vertebrates, the forebrain contains the cerebrum and the cerebellum
-animal brains increase in complexity and specialization
-dorsal is the top part of the brain and ventral is the bottom part of the brain
-neural plate is the region in the embryo that forms the CNS
-cells migrate up the neural groove to form the neural tube, causing the deepening of the
neural groove
-at day 23 of embryo development, a neural tube forms with the lumen inside it with a wall
lining (ependyma cells)
-the lumen forms the ventricles of the CNS while the lining forms the gap junctions and neural
stem cells
-the outer layer of the neural tube becomes neurons and glial cells
-neural crest become sensory and motor neurons of the PNS
-in week 4, the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain become specialized in the neural tube
-the seven major regions of the brain form in week 6 of embryo development
-at week 11, growth of cerebrum accelerates and covers diencephalon and midbrain
-the bone, connective tissue, and fluid protect the brain and spinal cord
-the brain is encased in the cranium (skull) while the spinal cord is protected by a vertebrate
column
-the three types of connective tissue are dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
-dura mater is the thickest tissue and is the first layer of connective tissue
-arachnoid mater has the form of a spider and is the second layer
-the pia mater contains arteries that supply blood to the brain and is the thinnest layer
-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lies under the pia mater and is different from the body interstitial
fluid in that it has a different chemical composition
-CSF has no RBCs, has low potassium and calcium but higher hydrogen atoms
-CSF is secreted from the choroid into the ventricles of the brain and circulates the brain to
cushion it and the spinal cord; flows through the subarachnoid space
-the CSF is absorbed by the blood villi on the arachnoid membrane to eliminate wastes
-the blood t brain barrier is between the CSF and the blood
-tight junctions are found on brain capillaries, caused by astrocytes
-tight junctions allow no proteins to pass the blood t brain barrier and only allow selected
hydrophobic and hydrophilic molecules to pass
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