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Lecture 19

BGYB30H3 Lecture 19 Notes Endocrinology 2-Nov 12

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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BGYB30H3 Lecture 19 Notes
-steroid hormones are only made in the adrenal gland, gonads, and placenta in the smooth ER
-steroid receptors cause slow cellular responses through binding to cell or nuclear receptor in
the cells
-receptor hormone complex binds to DNA to regulate more genes that cause protein synthesis
-parathyroid glands are located behind the thyroid glands
-pituitary and pineal glands are located near the hypothalamus in the brain
-adrenal cortex secretes
x aldosterone: which controls water and sodium retention in kidneys
x glucocorticoids
x sex hormones
x alpha cells secrete: glucagon
x beta cells secrete: insulin
-thyroid glands secretes
x T3 and T4 hormones: control metabolic rate, growth and development
x calcitonin: decreases blood calcium
-parathyroid secretes
x PTH: increases blood calcium
-thymus gland controls the immune system
-pineal gland secretes
x Melatonin: influences circadian rhythms, inhibits sexual behaviour and stimulates
immune system
-endocrine reflex pathways involve simple reflex
-endocrine cell acts as a sensor and integrator
-in reflex pathways, response leads to inhibition of endocrine cells
-PTH cells are linked to GPCR that bind to calcium
-when plasma calcium falls, PTH secreted into the blood to decrease calcium in the bones
-anterior pituitary is a true endocrine gland that secretes 6 hormones
-posterior pituitary is an extension of neural tissue that secretes hormones from the