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BGYB30H3 Lecture 23 Notes Reproduction and Development 3-Nov 26

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

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BGYB30H3 Lecture 23 Notes
-spermatogoniµuW primary spermatocyte W secondary spermatocyte W spermatids
-it takes 64 days for spermatogonia to mature
-spermatogonia undergo mitosis in the basal lamina and meiosis in the lumen of the
seminiferous tubules
-blood-testes barrier are tight junctions that break and reform while spermatocytes migrate
x lose cytoplasm and develop flagellated tail
x chromatin of nucleus condenses into a dense structure
x acrosome develops and contains enzymes that breakdown oocyte wall for fertilization
- during ejaculation, sperm released from the seminiferous tubules moves through the vas
deferens to the urethra
Sertoli cells
x provide nourishment
x secrete inhibin, activin, enzymes, growth factors and androgen-binding protein (ABP)
x ABP binds to testosterone to make it less lipophillic and keep it in the lumen
Leydig cells
x Found in the interstitial fluid between the seminiferous tubule
x secretes testosterone that can be converted to estradiol
-LH is regulated by GnRH hormone while FSH is regulated by activin, inhibin, and GnRH
-FSH activates receptors in Sertoli cells to release ABP and enzymes to control spermatogenesis
-ABP binds to testosterone in the lumen to initiate maturation of sperm
-LH stimulate Leydig cells to release testosterone that stimulates Sertoli cells
-spermatocytes only respond to testosterone if its bound to ABP
-external female genitalia of the female is called the vulva
-labium major is equivalent to scrotum in males while labium minora is equivalent to the
shaft of the penis
-uterus is the site where fertilized egg is implanted during pregnancy
-the three layers of the uterine wall are
x connective tissue: thin layer
x myometrium: thick middle layer
x endometrium: varies in thickness depending on the stage in the menstrual cycle
-fimbrae are held to the ovary by connective tissue to connect the ovary to the Fallopian tube
-cilia in the Fallopian tubes move the oocyte to the uterus
-outer cortex of ovary contains ovarian follicles while the central medulla contain nerves and
blood vessels
-ovary produces gametes and hormones
-primary oocyte is encased in follicles that are covered by granulose cells and thecal cells
-ovulation occurs when egg is released from the follicle
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