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BIOA01H3 (699)

BIOA01 Fall 2012 UTSC

5 Pages

Biological Sciences
Course Code
Bebhinn Treanor

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Chapters 2, 3, 5, 20 – Mirna Hennawy – BIOA01H3 2012 Properties of Life 1. Organized Cells How Life Formed 2. Heritable Information (for reproduction) 1. Abiotic Synthesis 3. Show Growth 4. Respond to stimuli 2. Polymerization 3. Package molecules into protobionts to separate 5. Harness/Utilize energy 6. Exhibit Homeostasis internal chemistry 4. System of storing information and guide 7. Adapt to environmental change synthesis. Cell Theory Theories of Abiotic Synthesis 1. All cells are derived from other cells Earth 2. All organisms are made of one or more cells 1. Primordial Soup: there was water vapor, H- 2O, CO 2 NH 3 and CH b4t no O . 2t was 3. Cells are the basic unit of life. formed because environment was highly Theory of evolution reducing (more reactive as chemicals try to bond) and eventually made O . All organisms, past or present, trace their 2 Relate all life on 2. Deep Sea Vents: Really hot environment of ancestry back to one common ancestor. H , H S, CO and N , and the geochemical 2 2 2 2 Diversity: gradient generated lipids, protein, nucleotides. Biological evolution through natural selection 3. Extraterrestrial Origins (Panspermia): Life because of genetic errors during replication evolved from outer space, since meteorites Diversity allows organisms to live in different contain carbonaceous material, amino acids environments and to adapt to changing ones. and nucleotides. Unity Polymerization 1. Cells enclosed by lipid bilayer Clay Hypothesis: it has charged layers that 2. Genestic system based on DNA polymerizes monomers and also stores potential energy 3. System of information transfer (DNA  that can be used for it. RNA  protein) Appearance of Protobionts 4. Protein assembly system by translation and transfer of RNA  They are a group of abiotically produced organic 5. ATP molecule of chemical energy molecules surrounded by a membrane with 6. Metabolic pathway to generate ATP unique internal chemistry and concentration. 7. Proteins as major structural and catalytic  They may be generated spontaneously. molecule.  They are capable of simple reproduction and Tree of Life metabolism.  They are similar to lysosomes (selectively Phylogeny of organisms (genealogical permeable lipid bilayer) relationships among species with a single ancestral species as the base) System to Store Information and Guide Synthesis  Ribozymes were discovered: RNA molecules that can act as enzymes Chapters 2, 3, 5, 20 – Mirna Hennawy – BIOA01H3 2012 Very small cells  Have catalytic properties due to folding (specific 1. 2. for substrate) 3 common shapes: Sphere (coccus), Rod (Bacillus), Spiral (Spirillus) DNA RNA Double-stranded and Single stranded with has deoxyribose ribose sugar (less complex) Cell Structure More Stable Less stable  Bacterial Cell Wall: Maintain shape of cell, Base thymine helps Base uracil instead, with DNA repair not as effective give protection and prevents bursting when Single-Stranded hypotonic. They contain PEPTIDOGLYCAN Double-stranded (harder to have DNA (cross-linked sugars). Walls that have little repair) peptidoglycan also have lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that aren’t easily identifiable by Protein RNA immune system (Gram-negative: pink). Gram-positive (purple) have more Fast rate of catalysis 10-1000 times slower 22 different amino 4 different nucleotide peptidoglycan. acids bases (less variant)  Sticky Capsule (glycocalyx): Surrounds Nucleotides can’t outer membrane, made of polysacharrides, Amino acids interact (bonding sticky, cannot be identified by immune chemically arrangements are harder) system, protects from dessication, extreme temperatures, invading viruses, antibiotics.  Pilli and Fimbriae: hair-like structure on surface of bacteria, aids in attachment of bacteria to host surfaces (required for Heterotrophs Autotrophs Obtain carbon from Obtain carbon from colonization during infection and initiation of formation of biofilm) organic molecules inorganic molecules Produce CO 2 Produce O 2  Flagella: sensory (sensitive to external Anoxygenic environment) and locomotive organelle photosynthesis or (whip-like fashion), different than Anaerobic respiration or Oxygenic eukaryotic flagella. photosynthesis  Genome: singular DNA molecule packed in fermentation (cyanobacteria reduce water O nucleoid (no nucleus) and may also have 2 smaller rings (plasmids) to provide resistance to antibiotics which replicate Prokaryotes Eukaryotes independently and can be transferred Lack membrane- Have membrane horizontally. enclosed organelles enclosed organelles  Ribosomes: smaller than eukaryotic ones, No Nucleus Nucleus but protein synthesis is similar. Bacterial Archaea, Bacteria Plants, Animals, Fungi, Protists ribosomes are sensitive to antibiotics, but archaeal and eukaryotic aren’t. Genetic Diversity in Prokaryotes Prokaryotic Morphology 1. Conjugation: DNA transfer through sex pilli Chapters 2, 3, 5, 20 – Mirna Hennawy – BIOA01H3 2012 2. Transformation: Uptake of genetic DNA from Nitrogen (component of proteins and environment nucleotides) goes throug
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