Class Notes (837,488)
Canada (510,274)
BIOA01H3 (699)
Lecture 13

Lecture 13.docx

6 Pages
97 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Biological Sciences
Course
BIOA01H3
Professor
Bebhinn Treanor
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 13—Introduction to Physiology  skeletal muscles to move around PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  Nervous & Endocrine systems: control systems of the body  smooth muscles for the gut to move stuff  Central nervous will receive various signals from the body (all the peripheral nerves which  heart muscles are sent to various parts of the body)  skin is the first sign of defence (tries to keep things out)  Control and demands of the body  Endocrine system: control regulatory system  # of endocrine glands through the body will produce and secrete the hormones which will circulate the body and have an influence of the organ structure PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A NON-HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  birds have hollow bones which allows them to be lighter than mammals (fly)  skeletons of mammals and birds are made out of bones (and some fish)  Cartilages fish: skeleton is made entirely out of cartilage  Example: shark  So, there can be differences among skeletal material in other organisms PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A NON-HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  Muscle function in birds is same as muscle function in mammas  Organization of neurons from invertebrates are very different from humans  Fastest muscles ever: hummingbirds  Function of Individual nerves are very similar to humans and other mammals  Exoskeleton: skeleton on outside (some vertebrates)  We think of fish as being cold-blooded animals (same body temperature as environments) BUT, a lot of very large active fish such as, tuna, predatory shark have the ability to raise their temperature of their muscle and keep it 15-20 degrees above the temperature of the environment  have core of muscles in middle of body which generate and trap heat PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  Muscles are used to move and bind us together  Several types of muscles  Example: 1 | P a g e PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  Job of respiratory: obtain oxygen and secrete C2  Digestive system in humans: from mouth to anus  Job of circulatory system: delivers oxygen from respiratory system to the body & it takes metabolic carbon dioxide from the tissue to the lungs (site where it is excreted)  Cardio-respiratory system: linked PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A NON-HUMAN PERSPECTIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A NON-HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  In fish breathe using gills (water breathing fish), and a # of fish breathe air  Digestive system varies for each organism;; depending on how much they eat  Lung fish have to breathe air (gills do not really function, only have true lungs)  Example: Anacondas would take months to digest a large animals (during this period, the  Human lungs are subdivided into millions of alveoli digestive system would grow)  Frog lungs is like a bag of air (no subdivision, rudimentary lung)  Kidney function in fishes: fish gills do all the roles of the human kidney (mammal kidney)  Reptilian lung (such as lizard) are more complex than amphibian lung  Fish rely on gills (even though they have kidneys)  Bird lung looks nothing like mammalian or amphibian lung (not an intermediate between  In Cartilaginous fish: gills play a minor role amphibian, reptiles or mammals)  extremely different  ‘Kidneys’ in birds: have salt glands which resemble the importance of kidneys to mammals  Tears excrete minerals (like urine for mammals)  Human heart: 4 chambers heart divided into right and left side  Best functioning kidney of all mammals: desert rat  Fish heart is also 4 chambers_but goes in a series  Amphibian heart looks like a human heart, but it only has one ventricle (humans have 2 ventricles)  Crocadilian heart: resembles fetal human heart  2 ventricles  Right & left side  More blood vessels than humans  Quite complex 2 | P a g e PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE “TYPES” OF PHYSIOLOGY  Medica/Clinical Physiology  Goal oriented (understanding humans better or disease oriented)  Experiment focus on rodent models (rats or mice)  Comparative Physiology  Not really human-goal oriented PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A NON-HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  Not tradition biology  Reproductive strategies varies across mammals  Many model systems (ranging from invertebrate to mammals)  Some mammals produce many offspring but very little parental care (or vice versa)  Some amphibians have no lungs  Tube worms: found at the bottom of oceans  They have evolved to use sulphur instead of oxygen as the final electron acceptor (due to their environments)  Vampire bats are great runners  Basically learn how animals work 3 | P a g e  Comparative physiology: study of animal (have a number of branches…)  Low oxygen levels at high altitude cause changes in the brain to modify breathing (it  Mechanistic Physiology: aims to understand exactly what the physiological mechanism are takes about 9 days for these changes to occur  Evolutionary physiology: understand how changes in different animal groups and  Adaptation: changes that occur over evolutionary time physiological function may explain the different animal groups  Example: changes in the molecules of haemoglobin in the red blood cell  Basic Principle by August Krogh: For every question in biology, there is an ideal model  Haemoglobin is a molecule that carry oxygenhumans that live in high altitude, system haemoglobin has undergone structural changes to be much more efficient o carry
More Less

Related notes for BIOA01H3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit