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Lecture 13

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Biological Sciences
Bebhinn Treanor

Lecture 13—Introduction to Physiology  skeletal muscles to move around PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  Nervous & Endocrine systems: control systems of the body  smooth muscles for the gut to move stuff  Central nervous will receive various signals from the body (all the peripheral nerves which  heart muscles are sent to various parts of the body)  skin is the first sign of defence (tries to keep things out)  Control and demands of the body  Endocrine system: control regulatory system  # of endocrine glands through the body will produce and secrete the hormones which will circulate the body and have an influence of the organ structure PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A NON-HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  birds have hollow bones which allows them to be lighter than mammals (fly)  skeletons of mammals and birds are made out of bones (and some fish)  Cartilages fish: skeleton is made entirely out of cartilage  Example: shark  So, there can be differences among skeletal material in other organisms PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A NON-HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  Muscle function in birds is same as muscle function in mammas  Organization of neurons from invertebrates are very different from humans  Fastest muscles ever: hummingbirds  Function of Individual nerves are very similar to humans and other mammals  Exoskeleton: skeleton on outside (some vertebrates)  We think of fish as being cold-blooded animals (same body temperature as environments) BUT, a lot of very large active fish such as, tuna, predatory shark have the ability to raise their temperature of their muscle and keep it 15-20 degrees above the temperature of the environment  have core of muscles in middle of body which generate and trap heat PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  Muscles are used to move and bind us together  Several types of muscles  Example: 1 | P a g e PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  Job of respiratory: obtain oxygen and secrete C2  Digestive system in humans: from mouth to anus  Job of circulatory system: delivers oxygen from respiratory system to the body & it takes metabolic carbon dioxide from the tissue to the lungs (site where it is excreted)  Cardio-respiratory system: linked PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A NON-HUMAN PERSPECTIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A NON-HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  In fish breathe using gills (water breathing fish), and a # of fish breathe air  Digestive system varies for each organism;; depending on how much they eat  Lung fish have to breathe air (gills do not really function, only have true lungs)  Example: Anacondas would take months to digest a large animals (during this period, the  Human lungs are subdivided into millions of alveoli digestive system would grow)  Frog lungs is like a bag of air (no subdivision, rudimentary lung)  Kidney function in fishes: fish gills do all the roles of the human kidney (mammal kidney)  Reptilian lung (such as lizard) are more complex than amphibian lung  Fish rely on gills (even though they have kidneys)  Bird lung looks nothing like mammalian or amphibian lung (not an intermediate between  In Cartilaginous fish: gills play a minor role amphibian, reptiles or mammals)  extremely different  ‘Kidneys’ in birds: have salt glands which resemble the importance of kidneys to mammals  Tears excrete minerals (like urine for mammals)  Human heart: 4 chambers heart divided into right and left side  Best functioning kidney of all mammals: desert rat  Fish heart is also 4 chambers_but goes in a series  Amphibian heart looks like a human heart, but it only has one ventricle (humans have 2 ventricles)  Crocadilian heart: resembles fetal human heart  2 ventricles  Right & left side  More blood vessels than humans  Quite complex 2 | P a g e PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A HUMAN PERSPECTIVE “TYPES” OF PHYSIOLOGY  Medica/Clinical Physiology  Goal oriented (understanding humans better or disease oriented)  Experiment focus on rodent models (rats or mice)  Comparative Physiology  Not really human-goal oriented PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS FROM A NON-HUMAN PERSPECTIVE  Not tradition biology  Reproductive strategies varies across mammals  Many model systems (ranging from invertebrate to mammals)  Some mammals produce many offspring but very little parental care (or vice versa)  Some amphibians have no lungs  Tube worms: found at the bottom of oceans  They have evolved to use sulphur instead of oxygen as the final electron acceptor (due to their environments)  Vampire bats are great runners  Basically learn how animals work 3 | P a g e  Comparative physiology: study of animal (have a number of branches…)  Low oxygen levels at high altitude cause changes in the brain to modify breathing (it  Mechanistic Physiology: aims to understand exactly what the physiological mechanism are takes about 9 days for these changes to occur  Evolutionary physiology: understand how changes in different animal groups and  Adaptation: changes that occur over evolutionary time physiological function may explain the different animal groups  Example: changes in the molecules of haemoglobin in the red blood cell  Basic Principle by August Krogh: For every question in biology, there is an ideal model  Haemoglobin is a molecule that carry oxygenhumans that live in high altitude, system haemoglobin has undergone structural changes to be much more efficient o carry
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