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bacteria part 2.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Controlling Bacteria Canning: Sealing food in airtight cans/jars after killing bacteria, endospores are killed Pasteurization: Heating milk to kill harmful bacteria Dehydration: Removing water from food, bacteria can’t grow when H2O is removed Antiseptic: Chemicals that kill bacteria on living things (Hydrogen peroxide, soap, mouthwash) Disinfectants: Stronger chemicals that destroy bacteria on objects (Lysol, Clorox) Nutrition of Bacteria Heterotroph- Get energy through other organisms Autotrophs- Get energy through light energy (photosynthesis) Photoheterotrophs- Takes organic molecules from the environment Chemoheterotrophs- Use energy through chemical reactions VIRUSES & PROKARYOTES  Not a living organism  Use DNA & RNA to store information  Adapt to changing conditions by mutation  Cant reproduce on their own, need a host to reproduce  Made of proteins and nucleic acids (DNA&RNA)  Three shapes: Bateriophage, tobacco mosaic, influenza They reproduce through: Lytic cycle: Bacteriophage attaches to the host cell and injects its DNA. Forces the hosts cells enzymes and synthesis to make copies of the DNA. Once there are many copies, the host cell bursts releasing new viruses. Cycle is repeated when they infect other cells. Lysogenic cycle: The viral genes are already in the host cell. Each time the host cell reproduces, the viral DNA is coped too. An environment change can trigger the viral DNA to separate from the hosts and
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