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Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Basidiomycotes (club fungi): -Basidiocarps fuse + and – to make spores -Stores them in puffballs (basidiomycotes), then released when popped. Ascomycotes: -+ and – hyphae fuse to make spores inside a sack (asci) -Pressure builds up inside as spores mature and will burst, rapidly releasing pores shot out. Deuteromycotes -Asexual only -Source of penicillin -used to make blue cheese and soy sauce. Viruses -By Definition, viruses are not living because they do not have cells -Viruses made up of protein, and RNA/DNA Information -They’re considerably smaller than most cells and bacteria Classification by shape: Icosohedral: 20 sided structure: Adenovirus Mix of Helical and Rod: Helical: orf virus Rod: Rabies Classification by host/tissue: Broad with any hosts: rabies Limited range of hosts Specific type of tissue: HIV only attacks white blood cells Classification of RNA vs DNA RNA: attach to cells and spit viral RNA into cell, they will attach and copy viral data onto the cell until it bursts to let out more viruses DNA: stick onto part of a DNA gene, hiding, destroying, or corrupting that gene, making it unreadable. It could also insert itself between a genes, causing cancer. By reproduction type: through study of virus interaction with bacteriophages Lytic Cycle: 1) Attachment: attaches itself on cell membrane 2) Entry: it injects part of the DNA inside the nucleic acid of existing cell 3) Replication: takes existing DNA material and copies viral information 4) Assembly: new virus particles are assembled 5) Lysis and Release: Host cell breaks open and releases viruses Lysogenic Cycle: Infects host’s cells, injects viral DNA -Viral DNA information live within the strands of normal chromosome -As the normal cell replicates, it copies the viral DNA information with it also -If the cell’s immune sequences have been compromised, the gene will leak out and make the cell go through lytic cycle. Kingdom Animalia
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