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body systems lec 1.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Unit 1: Body Systems Biological Systems > Organ Systems > Tissue Systems > Cells Respiratory system: responsible for gas exchange between the organism and the environment Circulatory System: responsible for circulating nutrients and materials to all cells of the organism Digestive System: responsible for breaking down food into smaller, absorbable molecules Respiratory System: Requirements: Large surface area, moist surfaces Methods: Diffusion, Skin, Lungs Human System: (in the order) Nasal Cavity: Structure lined with mucus and moist and capillaries to clean and warm air Oral Cavity: similar to nasal cavity but for the mouth Pharynx: Intersection between the trachea and the mouth Epiglottis: Flap that controls the incoming food into the digestive system, and air into the trachea Larynx: Box with chords, which vibrate to produce sounds Trachea: cartilage ring supported tubes that act as the windpipe for air Bronchi: Splits the air canal into 2 pathways Bronchioles: network of tubes within the lung that further splits air into finer tubes (mucus) Alveoli: Sacks in the lung that makes up the respiratory surface Breathing: Diaphragm Muscle: contracts and makes room for space i
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