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biodiversity lec 6 questions and answers.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Biodiversity Questions 1) Define biodiversity and describe the three types of biodiversity studied by biologists. 1. Genetics Diversity: variety in heritable characteristics in a breeding population. IOW: variety in different traits in a species 2. Species Diversity: the variety of species in the world 3. Ecosystem Diversity: variety in the ecosystems of the biosphere (climate, vegetation, geography etc.) 2) Explain the benefits of biodiversity hotspots. Biodiversity hotspots are beneficial because they supply an abundant amount of species diversity in one area. That area can hardly be wiped out because they are protected by their own diversity and genetics range. 3) Indicate the importance of biodiversity to maintaining a viable ecosystem. The more biodiversity a place is, the more chances are there for species to survive. If one food source is being interrupted, having a wide biodiversity in that area will allow higher animals to survive through a different food chain route. 4) Indicate the importance of biodiversity and the impact that it has on the environment, other organisms, and humans Biodiversity is a key link in the human food chain which will link to all other organisms. If this diversity was interrupted in some way, the chain will be broken and food supply will be obstructed, if not permanently damaged in the longer run. If the food supply for animals themselves are damaged, humans will also be affected in some way too. 5) Describe the importance of classification of organisms. It’s important to classify organisms because it allows us to discover connections between them, their similarities, and to learn more about them through sorting them through many different methods and sorting categories. 6) Explain how Carolus Linneaus contributed to the system of Taxa that we use today. Describe his naming system. Carolus Linneaus created a taxa system of 7 random categories from which he was able to sort different organisms of similar traits and characteristics into. This taxa system allowed us to sort and trickle down the taxas to find the exact “address” of the animals that we are looking at. His naming system, the binomial nomenclature, is a two part naming system, consisting of the Genus name in italics and capital first letter, followed by the species name in lower case also in italics if on the computer; underlined if by hand. 7) List the eight taxa in order from most diverse classification to the least diverse. Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species 8) Compare the charactoristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes Prokaryotes do not have nucleus, no cytoplasm, much smaller, no cellular membrane, call wall usually present and very complex, binary fission division, no meiosis, goes through conjugation, and circular arrangement of DNA. Eukaryotes are larger cells with cytoplasm, nucleus, cell membranes, is able to stream cytoplasm, has linear chromosomes on hindles, mitosis division, and meiosis sexual reproduction. 9) Explain the use of a dichotomous key and be able to create one given a group of organisms. Determine the name of an organism using a dichotomous key in list form. A dichotomous key is a dual choice listing system that compares 2 characteristics at once, then depending on characteristics shown, will redirect the user to the next appropriate dual comparison. 10) Identify the three domains and explain when and how they became included as one of the taxa. Archaea: originally put with the eubacteria but was noticed that it was able to survive in very harsh conditions and has separate features so they were taken off. Eubacteria: consists of all bacteria that are eukaryotes and are living. Eukarya: consists of all multicellular, eukaryotes living organisms. Included in the beginning. 11) Describe each domain and list the characteristics for each Archaea: bacteria that’s prokaryotic but very eukaryote like that likes to live in very extreme conditions with unique rRNA (single strand nucleic acids in ribosomes. Eubacteria: bacteria that’s multicellular or unicellular that are a prokaryotic cell, which aren’t restricted to where they live. Also with unique rRNA. Eukarya: organisms with eukaryotic cells and are often multicellular. 12) List the characteristics of the kingdom archaebacteria, Describe the three main types of organisms that can be found in this kingdom. Archeabacteria: the main kingdom of archaea family. They are bacteria that live in extreme conditions. They’re all prokaryotic, they’re unicellular, have membranes and cells that are chemically unique, obtain nutrients from absorption, and reproduce sexually. They’re also anaerobes that can live without water. 13) List the characteristics if Eubacteria Prokaryotic cells, unicellular, cell membranes and similar to eukaryotic cells, lives on land, water, and everywhere, ingests nutrients, some through photosynthesis, and asexual reproduction. Also some are anaerobes. 14) Label the parts of a simple bacteria cell WHAT? 15) Describe the two methods of reproduction in bacteria and the conditions required for each to occur. Binary Fission: One cell will internally copies its DNA information, and cell will elongate. Then a septum (wall) will be built between it, then it will separate. It’s the usual method of reproduction at normal conditions. Conjugation: When situations require the cell to adapt, it will go through conjugation, a sexual reproduction method to increase its diversity. It will form a pili with another cell, then transfer some genetic data, then each cell will go through binary fission itself. 16) Describe how the rate of bacterial growth can play a positive or negative role in different circumstances High rate of bacterial growth when bacteria needs to take over a place to hog the resources will be a good thing (positive role), as it needs to overcome the power of the other bacteria to get the resources. However, when the amount of resources are low, the decreased rate of bacterial growth will allow them to spare more resources rather than hogging them up. 17) Explain three ways eubacteria are classified. Eubacteria are classified by their shape, cell wall style, and energy source, being autotrophs or heterotrophs. 18) Explain how antibiotics are used as a defense mechanism against many infections. Indicate how the misuse of antibiotics can lead to “Super bugs”. Antibiotics are great at killing bacteria that cause infections. They are not designed to kill viruses, however, so therefore antibiotics won’t aid symptoms that are caused by viruses. They can be harmful because misuse of antibiotics will leave bacteria that aren’t killing to mutate and adapt to the conditions from antibiotics. They will evolve to become immune to the antibiotics. That has a possibility of spreading with others and conjugating with them, converting them also into a spread resistance feature. 19) Describe the characteristics of viruses. By definition, viruses are not living things because they are not made up of cell, but made up of RNA/DNA and protein. They are shaped by icosahedral, rod, spherical, helical, or both. They come in to the body and do many different things to replicate it by using the person’s genetic material. With RNA viruses, they will go into a person’s cells, attach and copy it’s viral data into it, then it will destroy the internal genetic material, then use that material to create parts for it’s new copies. DNA viruses will inject viral information that will live amongst the person’s DNA g
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