1) Define biodiversity and describe the three types of biodiversity studied by biologists.
1. Genetics Diversity: variety in heritable characteristics in a breeding population. IOW: variety
in different traits in a species
2. Species Diversity: the variety of species in the world
3. Ecosystem Diversity: variety in the ecosystems of the biosphere (climate, vegetation,
2) Explain the benefits of biodiversity hotspots.
Biodiversity hotspots are beneficial because they supply an abundant amount of species
diversity in one area. That area can hardly be wiped out because they are protected by their
own diversity and genetics range.
3) Indicate the importance of biodiversity to maintaining a viable ecosystem.
The more biodiversity a place is, the more chances are there for species to survive. If one
food source is being interrupted, having a wide biodiversity in that area will allow higher
animals to survive through a different food chain route.
4) Indicate the importance of biodiversity and the impact that it has on the environment, other
organisms, and humans
Biodiversity is a key link in the human food chain which will link to all other organisms. If this
diversity was interrupted in some way, the chain will be broken and food supply will be
obstructed, if not permanently damaged in the longer run. If the food supply for animals
themselves are damaged, humans will also be affected in some way too.
5) Describe the importance of classification of organisms.
It’s important to classify organisms because it allows us to discover connections between
them, their similarities, and to learn more about them through sorting them through many
different methods and sorting categories.
6) Explain how Carolus Linneaus contributed to the system of Taxa that we use today.
Describe his naming system.
Carolus Linneaus created a taxa system of 7 random categories from which he was able to
sort different organisms of similar traits and characteristics into. This taxa system allowed
us to sort and trickle down the taxas to find the exact “address” of the animals that we are
looking at. His naming system, the binomial nomenclature, is a two part naming system, consisting of the Genus name in italics and capital first letter, followed by the species name
in lower case also in italics if on the computer; underlined if by hand.
7) List the eight taxa in order from most diverse classification to the least diverse.
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
8) Compare the charactoristics of prokaryotes and eukaryotes
Prokaryotes do not have nucleus, no cytoplasm, much smaller, no cellular membrane, call
wall usually present and very complex, binary fission division, no meiosis, goes through
conjugation, and circular arrangement of DNA.
Eukaryotes are larger cells with cytoplasm, nucleus, cell membranes, is able to stream
cytoplasm, has linear chromosomes on hindles, mitosis division, and meiosis sexual
9) Explain the use of a dichotomous key and be able to create one given a group of organisms.
Determine the name of an organism using a dichotomous key in list form.
A dichotomous key is a dual choice listing system that compares 2 characteristics at once,
then depending on characteristics shown, will redirect the user to the next appropriate dual
10) Identify the three domains and explain when and how they became included as one of the
Archaea: originally put with the eubacteria but was noticed that it was able to survive in very
harsh conditions and has separate features so they were taken off.
Eubacteria: consists of all bacteria that are eukaryotes and are living.
Eukarya: consists of all multicellular, eukaryotes living organisms. Included in the beginning.
11) Describe each domain and list the characteristics for each
Archaea: bacteria that’s prokaryotic but very eukaryote like that likes to live in very extreme
conditions with unique rRNA (single strand nucleic acids in ribosomes. Eubacteria: bacteria that’s multicellular or unicellular that are a prokaryotic cell, which aren’t
restricted to where they live. Also with unique rRNA.
Eukarya: organisms with eukaryotic cells and are often multicellular.
12) List the characteristics of the kingdom archaebacteria, Describe the three main types of
organisms that can be found in this kingdom.
Archeabacteria: the main kingdom of archaea family. They are bacteria that live in extreme
conditions. They’re all prokaryotic, they’re unicellular, have membranes and cells that are
chemically unique, obtain nutrients from absorption, and reproduce sexually. They’re also
anaerobes that can live without water.
13) List the characteristics if Eubacteria
Prokaryotic cells, unicellular, cell membranes and similar to eukaryotic cells, lives on land,
water, and everywhere, ingests nutrients, some through photosynthesis, and asexual
reproduction. Also some are anaerobes.
14) Label the parts of a simple bacteria cell
15) Describe the two methods of reproduction in bacteria and the conditions required for each
Binary Fission: One cell will internally copies its DNA information, and cell will elongate.
Then a septum (wall) will be built between it, then it will separate. It’s the usual method of
reproduction at normal conditions.
Conjugation: When situations require the cell to adapt, it will go through conjugation, a
sexual reproduction method to increase its diversity. It will form a pili with another cell, then
transfer some genetic data, then each cell will go through binary fission itself.
16) Describe how the rate of bacterial growth can play a positive or negative role in different
High rate of bacterial growth when bacteria needs to take over a place to hog the resources
will be a good thing (positive role), as it needs to overcome the power of the other bacteria to get the resources. However, when the amount of resources are low, the decreased rate
of bacterial growth will allow them to spare more resources rather than hogging them up.
17) Explain three ways eubacteria are classified.
Eubacteria are classified by their shape, cell wall style, and energy source, being autotrophs
18) Explain how antibiotics are used as a defense mechanism against many infections. Indicate
how the misuse of antibiotics can lead to “Super bugs”.
Antibiotics are great at killing bacteria that cause infections. They are not designed to kill
viruses, however, so therefore antibiotics won’t aid symptoms that are caused by viruses.
They can be harmful because misuse of antibiotics will leave bacteria that aren’t killing to
mutate and adapt to the conditions from antibiotics. They will evolve to become immune to
the antibiotics. That has a possibility of spreading with others and conjugating with them,
converting them also into a spread resistance feature.
19) Describe the characteristics of viruses.
By definition, viruses are not living things because they are not made up of cell, but made
up of RNA/DNA and protein. They are shaped by icosahedral, rod, spherical, helical, or
both. They come in to the body and do many different things to replicate it by using the
person’s genetic material. With RNA viruses, they will go into a person’s cells, attach and
copy it’s viral data into it, then it will destroy the internal genetic material, then use that
material to create parts for it’s new copies. DNA viruses will inject viral information that will
live amongst the person’s DNA g