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Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Homologous Sequences -Have similar sequence of genes -Genes in cytochrome C (used for cellular respiration) -nearly identical in app species: suggests that they’re all related Vestigial Sequences -DNA sequences that’s part of a non-functional gene -Called a Pseudogene -once functional, but not anymore; evidence of evolutionary past Human Pseudogene -L-gulonolactone Oxidase is an enzyme that creates vitamin C in most mammals. -mutation caused this to be deactivated in all primates -So once it works, but now it doesn’t because we’ve evolved Protein Sequence -Analyzed to determine homology -Cytochrome C highly similar across species Phylogeny Phylogenetic Trees: are created. Uses sequence Data from DNA or proteins to make trees to show relationships Theories on Natural Selection “Individuals having any advantage, however slight over others, would have the best chance of surviving and procreating their kind?” “Any variation in the least degree injurious would be rigidly destroyed. This preservation of favourable variations and the rejection of the injurious variations I call Natural Selection.” Charles Darwin 1) More individuals are born than survive 2) There is variation in traits 3) Some traits are more advantageous than others 4) Advantageous traits -> better chance of surviving and reproducing 5) Traits that are not suitable for a certain environment will be destroyed Natural Selection: Selection of the favorable character
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