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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Survival -Depends on the environment, selection will occur to see who lives -Survival is one thing, whether or not they can survive long enough to reproduce is another -Fittest: most number of reproduction offspring’s -Creatures must survive long enough to reproduce -They must attract mates to fertilize (females pick males) Sexual Selection -Adaptations have evolved to increase reproductive success -Females choose, Males must adapt to “attract the ladies” w/o these adaptations, the males may not attract the females, and therefore not reproduce and not creating off springs to carry on that trait. Lions: Darker = higher testosterone = higher sperm count = stronger = healthier = longer life = sexier lion = better reproduction success Exceptions: -Death-causing sickle cell trait, in heterozygous form, will have defense from malaria. Thus, it’ll keep that trait there as an advantageous trait. Summary of Natural Selection -Not enough resources -Competition -Whoever wins will get resources -With resources, they can survive and reproduce; victorious traits will be passed onto offspring and possibly the entire species. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Agents for Evolutionary Change Evolution: shift in allele frequencies in a population Genetic difference occurs with genetic variation through mutations -For evolution to occur, there must be genetic variation Gene Pool: collection of alleles in a population Population: group of interbreeding individuals Allele Frequency: how common that allele is in the population (how many A vs a) (1) Mutation : UV Radiation causing things like non-disjunction -
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