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evolution review.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Biological Sciences
Mark Fitzpatrick

Unit 3: Evolution Charles Darwin: Theory of natural selection & Theory of common ancestry Baron Cuvier: Theory of catastrophism: stating that a catastrophe in one area will cause animals from surrounding area to come take the space James Hutton: Theory of uniformitarianism: said that earth is very old, and that small changes add up to big changes Charles Lyell: Supported the Theory of Uniformitarianism. George Buffon: Said that species change over time, introduce common ancestry idea Carolus Linnaeus: Father of taxonomy: classifying animals based on their origins Alfred Wallace: Proposed idea of natural selection to Darwin Jean Lamarack: Theory of Acquired Traits: the way traits acquired in one’s lifetime is essentially passed onto their offsprings. Myths: -Natural selection has a purpose to increase complexity -> Natural Selection has no purpose -Individuals can evolve -> populations evolve -Evolution by natural selection produces higher humans -> evolution does not do that -Evolution proves that there is no god -> that was not the purpose of evolution -Humans are descendants from apes -> they are a common ancestry, but as with everything else -Eugenics: to use evolution to purify a race Evolution: species change over time to adapt to changing environments Mammalian Sea Creature: breath air into lungs, warm blooded, mammary glands -> evolve land to water Fossil Record: real evidence for comparing anatomy, but could be destroyed by erosion,inaccessible, or dead organism decay Whale Evolution: had pelvis bone to facilitate 4 legs, and wolf like skull > evolved from land to water Vestigial Structure: physical structures with no function > tail bone, appendix, molar teeth -suggests that in a common ancestor, it used to be used for something but is no longer useful Homologous Structures: structures with similar organization, suggesting Divergent Evolution Cladograms: shows relationships between creatures based on their anatomical features Converging Evolution: looks similar, but different internal structures (ie Bat and butterfly) Analogous Structures: evolved to have similar features, but not the same ancestor -Simply adaptations to their local environments Embryology: study of embryos; found that they’re all very similar. Molecular Evidence: amino acids have high similarities and in DNA as well DNA Sequence similarity: Humans are 97.5% identical to chimps, meant we diverged from a chimp Homologous Sequences: Cytocrome C is a sequence that’s in nearly all species, means they’re all related Vestigial Sequences: Sequences that were once used but not anymore, proves evolutionary past Protein Sequence: Analyzed to determine homology, used to detect possible homologous sequences Darwin’s Theories: 1) More individuals are born than can survive -Leads to competition, any creature that has a competitive edge will gather resources and survive 2) There are variations in traits -Tra
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